Si.a-a and His Family: the Archive of a 21st Century (BC) Entrepreneur

Steven Garfinkle 1 , 1
  • 1 Western Washington University.


The Si.a-a archive is recognized as one of the chief sources of information about non-institutional activity from the Ur III period. This article presents 14 unpublished Si.a-a texts from the Yale Babylonian Collection, along with an overview of his activities. The study of this important archive provides knowledge about the society and economy of southern Mesopotamia at the end of the Third Millennium BC that complements the information available from the vast administrative archives of the era. In spite of the apparent centralization of the state in this era, the Si.a-a archive highlights the continued importance of local and familial organizations. Moreover, the texts demonstrate the reliance of the great households upon the activity of individual entrepreneurs.

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The journal publishes papers and reviews from the field of Ancient Eastern Philology, and religious, legal, economic and social history, together with Middle Eastern archaeology and art history. The main geographical areas covered are Mesopotamia, Northern Syria, Anatolia, Ancient Armenia and Elam.