In 1922 Adolf von Harnack published an essay in which he suggested that the accounts of Jesus' post-resurrection appearances to Peter and James mentioned in 1 Cor 15,5 and 7 indicated that these individuals were leaders of competing factions in the early church. He argued on the one hand that within the pre-Pauline formula quoted in vv.3b–5 the appearance motif served as evidence for the reality of Christ's resurrection. On the other hand he claimed that the appearances to Peter and the Twelve (v.5) and to James and the Apostles (v.7) could be isolated from the pre-Pauline formula. He thought these traditions originally circulated independently and served to legitimate the authority of Peter and James as leaders in their respective communities.
A highly reputed journal published since 1900, the Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft is an international journal for the exegesis of the New Testament and knowledge of the early church (patristics).