Fluorosis is a major scourge in many countries caused by prolonged consumption of drinking water with high fluoride content found in groundwater resources. Hydroxyapatite (Hap) and its composite forms are excellent biomaterials that recently gained attention as efficient adsorbents, owing to its physical and chemical nature as it can substitute both cationic and anionic complexes present in an aqueous solution in its atomic arrangement. Its biological nature, biocompatibility and biodegradability along with its chemical characteristics such as crystallinity, stability, ion adsorption capability and highly specific catalytic activity make it suitable for a variety of applications especially in water treatment for fluoride removal. This review describes various techniques for synthesis of a wide variety of biogenic, synthetic, composite and modified forms of Hap for application in water defluoridation. Hap derived from natural sources or synthesized using conventional methods, hydrothermal, sol-gel or advanced sonication-cum-precipitation technique varied in terms of its crystallinity, structure, size, etc., which affect the fluoride removal capacity. The advantage and disadvantages of various synthesis methods, process parameters and product characteristics have been compiled, which may help to identify a suitable synthesis method for a desired Hap product for potential application and future perspectives in water treatment.
Static mixers are widely used in various industrial applications to intensify the laminar mixing of non-Newtonian fluids. Non-Newtonian fluids can be categorized into (1) time-independent, (2) time-dependent, and (3) viscoelastic fluids. Computational fluid dynamics studies on the laminar mixing of viscoelastic fluids are very limited due to the complexity in incorporating the multiple relaxation times and the associated stress tensor into the constitutive equations. This review paper provides recommendations for future research studies while summarizing the key research contributions in the field of non-Newtonian fluid mixing using static mixers. This review discusses the different experimental techniques employed such as electrical resistance tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, planar laser-induced fluorescence, and positron emission particle tracking. A comprehensive overview of the mixing fundamentals, fluid chaos, numerical characterization of fluid stretching, development of pressure drop correlations, and derivations of generalized Reynolds number is also provided in this review paper.