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Theoretical Advances and Advanced Applications
Techniques in Engineering Sciences
The impact of Big Data on the organization of the European market
Eine Einführung für Naturwissenschaftler und Ingenieure
Modeling and Innovative Research Frameworks
From Infancy to Young Adulthood
An Introduction


Artificial intelligence (AI) is changing, at a fast pace, all aspects of science, technology, and society in general, giving rise to what is known as the 4th Industrial Revolution. In this chapter, we review the literature regarding AI applications to bone tissue engineering, and more particularly, to cell adhesion in bone scaffolds. The works found are very few (only six works), and we classify them according to the AI technique used. The question we want to address in this chapter is what AI techniques were used and what exactly have they been used for. The chapter shows that the most used AI tools were the artificial neural network, in their different types, followed by cellular automata and multiagent systems. The intended use varies, but it is mainly related to understanding the variables involved and adjusting a model that provides insight and allows for a better and more informed design process of the scaffold.


This chapter presents various cloud platforms that are available in market offerings from different vendors. IBM provided a machine learning (ML) platform “IBM Watson Studio” (formerly “Data Science Experience”), and this is considered here for the field of study. An overview of artificial intelligence, ML, and deep learning (DL) with their relationship is deliberated. Discussion on popular DL architectures with elementary comparison is also considered.