9Be solution NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for the characterisation of beryllium complexes. An updated comprehensive table of the 9Be NMR chemical shifts of beryllium complexes in solution is presented. The recent additions span a greater range of chemical shifts than those previously reported, and more overlap is observed between the chemical shift regions of four-coordinate complexes and those with lower coordination numbers. Four-coordinate beryllium species have smaller ω1/2 values than the two- and three-coordinate species due to their higher order symmetry. In contrast to previous studies, no clear relationship is observed between chemical shift and the size and number of chelate rings.
Beryllium has long been considered the most toxic non-radioactive element to humans. However, it is shown that the acute toxicity of beryllium ions does not exceed that of other toxic cations like Cd2+, Ba2+, Hg2+ or As3+. The physiological mechanisms liable for the development of beryllium-associated diseases are discussed. Additionally an overview over proposed low-molecular model system for the beryllium species responsible for beryllioses is presented.
Reactions of zinc chloride with beryllium chloride in the molar ratios of 1:1 and 3:2 at T = 300°C in sealed ampoules lead to the formation of the two compounds Be1−xZnxCl2 (x = 0.563(2) and 0.489(3), respectively). Their composition and crystal structures were evidenced by single crystal X-ray structure analysis. Both compounds crystallize isotypic to β-BeCl2 in the tetragonal space group I41/acd, No. 142, tI96, with a = 10.7548(1), c = 19.4656(5) Å, V = 2251.50(7) Å3, Z = 32 at T = 100 K for the first and a = 10.7511(3), c = 19.2335(10) Å, V = 2223.1(2) Å3, Z = 32 at T = 100 K for the second compound. The positions of the Be atoms are mixed-occupied by Zn atoms. The compounds were additionally characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Plots according to Vegard’s law allowed for extrapolation towards a neat ZnCl2 phase that would crystallize in the β-BeCl2 structure, which is the ZnI2 structure type. Quantum chemical calculations have confirmed that such a ZnCl2 modification would represent a true local minimum.
A hypothesis on the structure of the key complex in chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is discussed with respect to the current knowledge on CBD, and with respect to the constraints implied by the coordination chemistry of beryllium and experimental data on the engaged protein complexes. The structure hypothesis is based on the [Be4O]6+ moiety as a coordination center, which is also found in the so called “basic beryllium carboxylates”. The structure of a small molecular model, optimized at the DFT level of theory, is used to compare the structural demands of this coordination center with a structure of the in vitro model of a beryllium immunoprotein complex determined previously by protein crystallography (Clayton & al., Cell2014, 158, 132). 9Be NMR chemical shielding values, quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters (η) have been calculated.
The electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) behaviour of various complexes of beryllium have been investigated in the work described in this paper. These beryllium complexes were analysed in situ on a small scale by preparing appropriate molar mixtures of the Be2+ ion with ligands in a range of solvent systems. In view of the toxicity of beryllium compounds, this combinatorial type screening, involving miniscule amounts of material in solution, proved to be a safe strategy to pursue the coordination chemistry of beryllium. A variety of beryllium complexes were generated with various ligands in solutions and subjected to detailed characterisation by ESI-MS. These ligands, containing functional groups or architecture of interest, varied from simple ligands such as the acetate ion to more common beryllium chelators including hydroxy keto ligands (maltol, tropolone), malonic acid, chromotropic acid and citric acid. Generally, there was excellent correlation between the species observed in the mass spectrum and those confirmed to exist in solution by other techniques. This lent strong credence to the ESI-MS methodology used as an efficient analytical technique for the easy screening of a diverse range of potential ligands for the divalent beryllium ion.
Interest in beryllium, the lightest member of group 2 elements, has grown substantially within the synthetic community. Herein, we report the synthesis and crystal structure of a heteroleptic haloberyllium borohydride bis(1-isopropyl-3-methyl-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)methane ‘carbodicarbene’ (CDC) complex [(CDC)BeCl(BH4)]. Crystallographic data: Triclinic space group P1̅, a = 8.8695(14), b = 12.394(2), c = 16.844(3) Å, α = 102.395(4), β = 96.456(4), γ = 99.164(4)°, wR2 (all data) = 0.2706 for 6720 unique data and 357 refined parameters.
Beryllium metal was dissolved in liquid ammonia at ambient temperature through addition of alkali metals. Thereby, the amidoberyllates Cs[Be(NH2)3], [Na4 (NH2)2][Be(NH2)4] and K4[Be2O(NH2)4][Be(NH2)3]2 were isolated and structurally characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the case of Li we were able to synthesize Be(NH2)2 at ambient temperature. We present the first example of a [Be(NH2)4]2− anion as well as the first oxyamidoberyllate anion [Be2O(NH2)4]2−.
We present the reaction of a tris(pyrazolyl) beryllium scorpionate (TpBe) complex with a weakly coordinating anion (WCA), which yields the heteroleptic complex TpBeOC(CF3)31 (TpBeORF). The product 1 has been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy (1H, 9Be, 13C) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (scXRD). Quantum chemical calculations (DFT, NPA, LOL) were performed to study the bonding nature in 1.