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From Genomes to Ecosystems

Abstract

Coronaviruses disease (COVID-19) has caused major outbreaks. A novel variant, SARS-CoV-2, is responsible for COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical presentations and pathological mechanisms of COVID-19 are broad. The respiratory aspect of the disease has been extensively researched. Emerging studies point out the possibility of the central nervous system (CNS) involvement by COVID-19. Here, we discuss the current evidence for CNS involvement in COVID-19 and highlight that the high pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 might be due to its neuroinvasive potential.

Abstract

Introduction

Contamination by Staphylococcus aureus of food produced from animal sources may have diverse and multifactorial causes that depend on geographical distribution. The goal of this study was to isolate and characterise S. aureus strains from contaminated fermented pork sausage, which is a local food of northeastern Thailand.

Material and Methods

S. aureus strains were isolated from local pork sausage, and the presence of classical enterotoxins was determined by PCR and reversed passive latex agglutination. These results were compared with strains derived from hospitalised patients and healthy carriers. Additionally, production of extracellular enzymes and haemolysin, biofilm formation, and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed.

Results

S. aureus was identified in 36 sausage isolates (60%). The strains positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin A were more frequently found in isolates from sausage and healthy carriers than in those from patients. All tested S. aureus strains were positive for DNase, lipase, proteinase, haemolysin, and biofilm formation; notably, strains isolated from food and healthy carriers displayed similar values. Most isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, while none were to methicillin.

Conclusions

Thai fermented pork sausages are associated with a high risk of staphylococcal food poisoning, which may be linked to contamination caused by carriers. Dissemination of knowledge regarding best practices in sanitation and hygiene is important in local communities.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study was to determine the transmission potential of carp edema virus (CEV) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) introduced to Europe by the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus).

Material and Methods

A total of 70 round goby specimens were collected from the Szczecin Lagoon, Poland, and locations in Germany in the third and fourth quarters of 2018. The fish were analysed to detect KHV and CEV by PCR.

Results

Six fish specimens were positive for the presence of KHV, while none of the gobies examined showed the presence of CEV.

Conclusion

The CEV genome was detected in the goby specimens from Germany and from Poland. Considering the high pace of the spread of the round goby and its effectiveness in acquisition of new ecological niches, it should be kept out during refilling of carp ponds. Further studies should focus on experimental cohabitation of CEV-infected round gobies and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) carp to investigate the potential for active virus transfer.

Abstract

Introduction

The prohibition of antibiotic use in edible snails obligates breeders to treat bacterial infections by different means, of which a common one is a bath in Gram-positive– and partially Gram-negative–bactericidal ethacridine lactate solution. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bathing Cornu aspersum Müller snails in a 0.1% aqueous solution of ethacridine lactate on selected physiological parameters of haemolymph.

Material and Methods

The study included 80 snails, divided into two equal groups (study and control). The study group was subjected to bathing in ethacridine lactate and the control group to bathing in tap water. Both groups were treated daily for seven days. The number of haemocytes in the haemolymph, the activity of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases, and the concentration of urea were determined.

Results

In the study group, after exposure to ethacridine lactate solution an increase in ALT activity, changes in the De Ritis ratio, an increase in the amount of haemocytes, and a decrease in body weight were found. No such changes were detected in the control group snails or in animals after the first bath.

Conclusion

Multiple applications of a 0.1% ethacridine lactate bath may adversely affect Cornu aspersum Müller snails.

Abstract

Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of development of cancer in organs especially in breast and ovary. Prevention and screening in BRCA mutation carriers are of high importance. Prophylactic surgeries are possible but are still insufficiently performed because they require surgical procedures in healthy patients. Guidelines for the management of BRCA mutations carriers must absolutely be part of the standard practice of all those involved in the management of these patients to increase the impact of the implementation of these preventive measures. There is no screening recommended for ovarian cancer. A risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be performed from age 35 to 40 years for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 40 to 45 years for BRCA2 mutation carriers. A screening for breast cancer should be performed annually from 30 years old by breast MRI and mammography. A risk-reducing bilateral mastectomy is recommended with nipple sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction from 30 years and before 40 years. A multidisciplinary care must be implemented for these patients with an important psychological support.

Abstract

The study aims to examine the risk factors for increased colorectal cancer (CRC) markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The 229 patients retrospectively reviewed were categorized into two groups: CRC tumor marker-positive and -negative groups. Patients who tested positive for all three of the following CRC markers were included in the CRC tumor marker-positive group: serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and septin9 methylation. Univariate analysis revealed that most CRC marker-positive patients had higher age, a family history of CRC, history of smoking and alcohol intake, high body mass index (BMI; overweight), longer history of T2DM, worse diabetes control (with high glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), lower level of serum vitamin D (VD), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher level of total cholesterol and triglyceride (TG). Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI, VD, HbA1c and TG were independent predictors of CRC marker-positive status (OR, 95% confidence intervals and P values were 1.912 [1.346–2.716], <0.001; 0.773 [0.633–0.943], 0.011; 9.082 [3.52–23.433], <0.001; and 11.597 [3.267–41.164], <0.001, respectively). In this retrospective study, high BMI, HbA1c and TG as well as low level of VD were correlated with CRC tumor marker-positive status in T2DM patients. Patients with these risk factors may benefit from more frequent screening for CRC tumor markers.

Abstract

Background: Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but this association has not been evaluated in patients with schizophrenia. This study primarily evaluated the association of sP-selectin with plasma lipids and nitrite (NO2-) respectively in overweight/obese adults with schizophrenia.

Methods: One-hundred and six patients with schizophrenia (mean age 32.9 years; 71.60% male) were recruited from a psychiatric hospital. Participants completed a structured interview and provided a fasting blood sample. Body mass index (BMI) was used to divide the sample into normal weight and overweight/obese groups. Pearson’s and partial correlation coefficients (controlling for age, sex, race, education, and inflammation) were calculated to examine the association of sP-selectin with plasma lipids, and NO2- in the overweight/obese patients (primary analysis), as well as in the normal weight patients and the total sample (exploratory analyses).

Results: After controlling for potential confounders, sP-selectin positively correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.38, p = 0.01) and NO2- (r = 0.40, p < 0.01) in the overweight/ obese group only.

Conclusions: Future longitudinal studies should evaluate the utility of sP-selectin as a biomarker of CVD in overweight/obese adults with schizophrenia (for example, by relating sP-selectin to incidence of cardiovascular events).

Abstract

We report herein the case of a patient with low blood levels of different hormones during a systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson’s disease) attack.

Abstract

Progestational agents are often prescribed to increase the clinical pregnancy rate in assisted reproduction. Progestogens affect implantation, cytokine balance, natural killer cell activity, arachidonic acid release and myometrial contractility. Progesterone production from the corpus luteum is essential for reproduction, but assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can impair luteal function. ART cycles can be classified into three, fresh cycles in which there may or may not be luteal insufficiency, agonist or antagonist cycles in which there is luteal insufficiency, and luteal support is essential, and donor cycles, in which there is no corpus luteum, and a luteal phase has to be created. However, there is no adequate diagnostic test for luteal insufficiency. This article summarises the effect of various progestogens, progesterone itself whether administered vaginally, intra-muscularly, rectally or subcutaneously, and the effect of the progestogen, dydrogesterone. The time of commencement and cessation of therapy are also discussed. Progestogens are also often used to treat threatened and recurrent miscarriage. In these patients progestogen supplementation may need to be prolonged. In threatened miscarriage, until after all bleeding stops, and in recurrent miscarriage, at least as long as the luteo-placental shift.