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Abstract

Introduction

Contamination by Staphylococcus aureus of food produced from animal sources may have diverse and multifactorial causes that depend on geographical distribution. The goal of this study was to isolate and characterise S. aureus strains from contaminated fermented pork sausage, which is a local food of northeastern Thailand.

Material and Methods

S. aureus strains were isolated from local pork sausage, and the presence of classical enterotoxins was determined by PCR and reversed passive latex agglutination. These results were compared with strains derived from hospitalised patients and healthy carriers. Additionally, production of extracellular enzymes and haemolysin, biofilm formation, and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed.

Results

S. aureus was identified in 36 sausage isolates (60%). The strains positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin A were more frequently found in isolates from sausage and healthy carriers than in those from patients. All tested S. aureus strains were positive for DNase, lipase, proteinase, haemolysin, and biofilm formation; notably, strains isolated from food and healthy carriers displayed similar values. Most isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, while none were to methicillin.

Conclusions

Thai fermented pork sausages are associated with a high risk of staphylococcal food poisoning, which may be linked to contamination caused by carriers. Dissemination of knowledge regarding best practices in sanitation and hygiene is important in local communities.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study was to determine the transmission potential of carp edema virus (CEV) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) introduced to Europe by the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus).

Material and Methods

A total of 70 round goby specimens were collected from the Szczecin Lagoon, Poland, and locations in Germany in the third and fourth quarters of 2018. The fish were analysed to detect KHV and CEV by PCR.

Results

Six fish specimens were positive for the presence of KHV, while none of the gobies examined showed the presence of CEV.

Conclusion

The CEV genome was detected in the goby specimens from Germany and from Poland. Considering the high pace of the spread of the round goby and its effectiveness in acquisition of new ecological niches, it should be kept out during refilling of carp ponds. Further studies should focus on experimental cohabitation of CEV-infected round gobies and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) carp to investigate the potential for active virus transfer.

Abstract

Introduction

The prohibition of antibiotic use in edible snails obligates breeders to treat bacterial infections by different means, of which a common one is a bath in Gram-positive– and partially Gram-negative–bactericidal ethacridine lactate solution. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bathing Cornu aspersum Müller snails in a 0.1% aqueous solution of ethacridine lactate on selected physiological parameters of haemolymph.

Material and Methods

The study included 80 snails, divided into two equal groups (study and control). The study group was subjected to bathing in ethacridine lactate and the control group to bathing in tap water. Both groups were treated daily for seven days. The number of haemocytes in the haemolymph, the activity of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases, and the concentration of urea were determined.

Results

In the study group, after exposure to ethacridine lactate solution an increase in ALT activity, changes in the De Ritis ratio, an increase in the amount of haemocytes, and a decrease in body weight were found. No such changes were detected in the control group snails or in animals after the first bath.

Conclusion

Multiple applications of a 0.1% ethacridine lactate bath may adversely affect Cornu aspersum Müller snails.

Abstract

Introduction

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a rare, under-explored lethal viral infection of cattle with gammaherpesvirus aetiological agents. Most often, the disease occurs on farms where cattle and sheep are kept together. However, other trigger mechanisms and environmental factors contribute. This study investigates the causation of MCF.

Material and Methods

An outbreak of MCF occurred in June - August 2017 in Kharchev village in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. In this paper, we provide epidemiological (sanitary status of pastures, watering places, and premises) and weather data during the outbreak, and descriptions of the clinical signs and post-mortem changes in cattle. The virus was detected and isolated from pathological material samples and identified by molecular methods.

Results

Extreme weather conditions, mixed-herd cattle and sheep farming, and unsatisfactory feed quality contributed to the outbreak. A virus related to herpesvirus OvHV2 was isolated and typed (MCF/Irkutsk/2017). Phylogenetic analysis showed its close genetic relationship to isolates from cattle and sheep in Germany, USA, and the Netherlands.

Conclusion

Sporadic outbreaks of MCF caused by biotic and abiotic factors together are typical for the Russian Federation, and the Irkutsk outbreak epitomised this. Temperature anomalies caused pasture depletion, resulting in feed and water deficiency for grazing animals and dehydration and acidosis. Heat stress in animals ultimately led to the occurrence of MCF in the herd.

Abstract

Introduction

Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is economically the most important endemic parasitic disease in Iraq. Few data are available relating to the genetic divergence of this helminth. This study aimed to molecularly characterise Cysticercus tenuicollis isolates from sheep in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq.

Material and Methods

DNA extraction and amplification of specimens of C. tenuicollis from 46 sheep were conducted by PCR for the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. The 19 amplicons were subjected to purification and partial sequencing.

Results

Five 12S rRNA nucleotide sequence haplotypes were found. The pairwise nucleotide difference between haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene ranged from 0.2% to 0.7%. Four out of the five haplotypes of C. tenuicollis contained one to two base mutations and were discovered in Iraq for the first time, and this may be a unique mutation globally which has not been recorded previously. Three newly recorded haplotypes contained only one single mutation, and the other one contained two mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolated strains were closely related to Iranian sheep isolates.

Conclusions

Four new strains of T. hydatigena were discovered for the first time in the study area.

Abstract

Introduction

The plate counting method widely used at present to discern viable from non-viable Brucella in the host or cell is time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid, simple method for detecting and counting viable Brucella organisms.

Material and Methods

Using propidium monoazide (PMA) to inhibit amplification of DNA from dead Brucella, a novel, rapid PMA-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) detection method for counting viable Brucella was established. The standard recombinant plasmid with the target BCSP31 gene fragment inserted was constructed for drawing a standard curve. The reaction conditions were optimised, and the sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were analysed.

Results

The optimal exposure time and working concentration of PMA were 10 min and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the standard curve was 0.999. The sensitivity of the method was 103 CFU/mL, moreover, its specificity and repeatability also met the requirements. The concentration of B. suis measured by the PMA-qPCR did not differ significantly from that measured by the plate counting method, and the concentrations of viable bacteria in infected cells determined by the two methods were of the same order of magnitude.

Conclusion

In this study, a rapid and simple PMA-qPCR counting method for viable Brucella was established, which will facilitate related research.

Abstract

Introduction

Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease, and Salmonella spp. can sometimes be found in dogs and cats, posing a risk to human health. In this study, the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of faecal Salmonella were investigated in pet dogs and cats in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Material and Methods

Faecal samples from 243 dogs and 113 cats, at seven pet clinics, were tested between March 2018 and May 2019. Each Salmonella isolate was characterised using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

Results

The prevalence of Salmonella was 9.47% in dogs and 1.77% in cats. Among the 25 isolates, eight serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were detected, S. Kentucky (n = 11), S. Indiana (n = 5), and S. Typhimurium (n = 4) predominating. S. Derby, S. Toucra, S. Sandiego, S. Newport, and S. Saintpaul all occurred singly. The 23 Salmonella strains found in dogs were from seven different serovars, while the two strains in cats were from two. The highest resistance rates were found for tetracycline (92%), azithromycin (88%), cefazolin (84%), nalidixic acid (80%), ampicillin (80%), ceftriaxone (80%), and streptomycin (76%). Resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (96%) isolates. Most of the S. Kentucky and S. Indiana isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 11 agents.

Conclusion

The carriage rate was far higher in dogs than in cats from Xuzhou. Some isolated strains were highly resistant to antimicrobials used to treat infections in humans and pets, which may raise the risk of humans being infected with multi-drug resistant Salmonella via close contact with pets.

Abstract

Introduction

Mobile phones (MP) and other electronic and communication devices that are used daily expose users to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and contribute to an increasing incidence of neurological disorders. Brain tissue is the closest organ to the MP as it operates, thus the influence of MP radiation on brain tissue is of particular concern, although research is still inconclusive. The present study investigated the possible effect of an EMF (1,350–1,375 megahertz (MHz)) from an MP on morphological and histopathological profiles in the mouse brain.

Material and methods

Healthy BALB/c mice were assigned to three equal groups (a control and two experimental groups, n = 10 each). Experimental mice were exposed to EMFs continuously for 72 h, those of experimental group I to a 1,350 MHz field at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg, and group II to a 1,375 MHz field EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg. Brain segmentation and histopathological analysis were applied to detect changes in the morphometric parameters of the brain lobes and identify pathological lesions, respectively.

Results

Histopathology results revealed shrinkage of pyramidal neurons, presence of mild perivascular and perineural oedema, and some vacuolation of neurons and glial cells derived from mouse great hemispheres. The lesions also included reduction of Purkinje cells, vacuolisation of neurons and glial cells, and interstitial oedema in the cerebellum.

Conclusion

MP distance of 3 cm from the cage may induce appreciable morphological changes in mouse brain structures; therefore, more comprehensive research is essential for assessment of safe distance. These pronounced effects may interfere with the results of laboratory tests on murine experimental models in veterinary or biomedical research.

Abstract

Introduction

The authorisation of tylosin as feed additive was withdrawn for reasons of human health concerning resistance of pathogenic bacteria. An analytical method for the identification and quantification of tylosin in animal feed was developed and validated.

Material and Methods

The samples were extracted using an acidified methanol:water mixture and solid-phase extraction was employed for the isolation of the antibiotic from diluted feed samples. Tylosin was analysed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection. The method’s performance was evaluated in adherence to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

Results

The recovery of the analyte from spiked samples was determined to be in the range from 78.9% to 108.3% depending on tylosin concentrations. The CCα and CCβ values for tylosin in feeds were determined at 0.085 mg kg-1 and 0.091 mg kg-1, respectively. The method detection limit was found to be 0.035 mg kg-1 and the quantification limit 0.05 mg kg-1. The applicability of the developed method was tested by analysing real feed samples.

Conclusion

A reliable LC-MS method was developed to identify and quantify tylosin in animal feed with a good repeatability and a high specificity and sensitivity. Because of these characteristics, the proposed method is applicable and could be deemed necessary within the field of feed control and safety.

Abstract

Introduction

Fowl adenovirus can cause important diseases in chickens such as inclusion body hepatitis, hepatitis hydropericardium syndrome, and gizzard erosion and ulceration. Inclusion body hepatitis has been regularly reported from many countries. This is the first case report from Turkey, describing an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis in broiler farms due to fowl adenovirus-8b (FAdV-8b).

Material and Methods

Broiler flocks with mortality about 10% were visited in Turkey, and necropsy was performed on dead birds. Samples were subjected to PCR assay to detect FAdV and other viral pathogens. After sequencing, phylogenetic analysis was performed and the nucleotide sequences of hexon genes were compared with the FAdV sequences data available in GenBank.

Results

Clinical signs such as anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, huddling, and greenish diarrhoea were observed. Mortality started at the 8th day of age and ranged from 10% to 14%. Necropsy showed severe hepatitis, jaundice, and pancreatitis. The main necropsy findings included a pale, enlarged, haemorrhagic, and friable liver along with swollen and haemorrhagic kidneys and spleen. PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of fowl adenovirus serotype 8b (FAdV-E).

Conclusion

This is the first report on characterisation and the pathological lesions associated with FAdV in broilers in Turkey. Our findings suggest that FAdV strains could be an emerging pathogen in Turkish broilers and could actively contribute to hepatitis and immunosuppression.