Polymer-based materials are mainly intended for structural applications in industries. Due to their competitive properties, they are used as a replacement for wood and other conventional materials. During their manufacture, fibres are reinforced into the polymer resin in different shapes as required. Among several available reinforcements, glass fibre in many researches showed the best in mechanical characters, ability to get reinforced in the matrix and handling ability. In contrast, bio-reinforcements from various natural sources are also used as an alternative and they provide an equal performance like the man-made reinforcements. When both the artificial fibre and natural fibre are used in a composite material, the composite attains the iconic characters of each reinforcement; thus, the material as a whole shows excellent characteristics. This chapter provides a clear picture on characterization of composites with glass reinforcement in sandwich form, and also shows various trends like the elevation or decline in their strengths, their possible reasons and the potential ways for elevating the characters of the composite.
The requirement for structures with sustainable weight is in well progress nowadays. Filaments (fibres) with good capability and less weight are preferred. Sandwich consisting of fibre metal laminates replaces substantial solid metals in helicopters, air vehicles and so on. In this chapter, sandwich utilizing aluminium and glass fibre sheets with various fibre frameworks, for example, unidirectional, woven roving and chopped strand matrix, is manufactured. The composites are tested for tensile, flexural and impact. The outcomes revealed that the unidirectional glass fibre-reinforced polymer-Al stack performs better obstruction in contrast to cleaved strand and woven network under shifting stacking conditions. The cross-segment of the broken examples is seen under examined electron microscopy to dissect the holding quality among metal and fibre layers.
Due to the unique characteristics, polymer matrix composites have been widely produced and used in various applications. In this chapter, the effects of synthetic fibres and polymers on the final characteristics of polymer composites, particularly glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP), are discussed. Additionally, the influence of machining processes on the generation of delamination and development of defects in GFRP are elaborated. Finally, the delamination assessment as a major defect caused by machining processes is modelled by an algorithm. The proposed approach shows promising and can effectively interpret a large amount of data in a short period of time.
Composite materials have extensive applications in creating products that we use in day-to-day life. However, due to the inhomogeneities present in the material in terms of reinforcement, the machining or processing of the same is extremely difficult. The underlying mechanisms involved in cutting such materials result in the generation of unbalanced cutting forces, rise in cutting temperature and excessive wear of the cutting tool. Such situations directly contributed to the inaccuracies in the machined feature. This chapter discusses the effects of two critical issues that occur during drilling of glass fibre-reinforced polymer composites, namely, heat generation and tool instability. Further different techniques that can be employed for quantifying heat generation, tool vibration and delamination are also discussed in brief.
The intensified stiffness and lightweight structural designed components such as glass fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites are becoming an alternative to metallic materials to improve the performance of aircraft, shipbuilding and automobiles. Machining damages on the machined texture or subsurface due to the catastrophic nature of composites result in rejection of components at the last stage of production cycle, and necessitate the minimization of such damages by improving the manufacturing quality in secondary manufacturing process. In this chapter, various fibre orientation (FO) angled GFRP workpieces were milled with different tool rake angles (RA) of end milling cutters. Random experiments were done to test the effects of important milling parameters, such as spindle speed, depth of cut (DOC), FO angle and tool’s RA. The machined wall surface and subsurface were thoroughly analyzed by scanning electron microscope. A reasonable reduction in subsurface damages was observed when using the DOC is low (1 mm) and FO angle of workpiece is less than 90°. At this instance, the machining force and the surface roughness are increased proportionally to a DOC, FO angle of the workpiece and tool RAs, where the surface damages were found to be more. It has also been observed that the damage mechanisms of GFRP composite laminates were dominated by their FO angle.