A series of CuO/CeO2 catalysts were successfully synthesized via solution combustion method (SCS) using different fuels and tested for CO oxidation. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). It was found that the used fuels strongly affected the characterization and the low-temperature reduction behavior of CuO/CeO2 catalysts. The CuO/CeO2-urea catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity toward CO oxidation (t50=120∘C, t100=159∘C) than the 5 other synthesized catalysts. In addition, the CuO/CeO2-urea catalyst displayed high stability for CO oxidation during five cycles and water resistance. The enhanced catalytic CO oxidation of the synthesized samples can be attributed by a combination of factors, such as smaller crystallite size, higher specific surface area, larger amount of amorphous copper(II) oxide, more mesoporous and uniform spherical-like structure. These findings are worth considering in order to continue the study of the CuO/CeO2 catalyst with low-temperature CO oxidation.
Disadvantages in the use of polylactic acid (PLA) as a base material for Tissue Engineering applications include the low osteoconductivity of this biomaterial, its acidic degradation and the deficient cellular adhesion on its surface. In order to counteract these drawbacks, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and β-tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) were proposed in this work as additives of PLA-based support structures. Composite scaffolds (PLA:CaCO3: β-TCP 95:2.5:2.5) manufactured by fused deposition modeling (FDM) were tested under enzymatic degradation using proteinase K enzymes to assess the modification of their properties in comparison with neat PLA scaffolds. The samples were characterized before and after the degradation test by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, compression testing and thermogravimetric and calorimetric analysis. According to the results, the combination of the PLA matrix with the proposed additives increases the degradation rate of the 3D printed scaffolds, which is an advantage for the application of the composite scaffold in the field of Tissue Engineering. The higher degradation rate of the composite scaffolds could be explained by the release of the additive particles and the statistically higher microporosity of these samples compared to the neat PLA ones.
Increasingly high demands on environmental protection are intensifying the development of sustainable construction. Ventilated facades can provide an energy-efficient alternative to standard facades, that is, external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). The article compares standard facades, which was a reference, to ventilated facades in two variants: closed joints and open joints. The comparison was made by means of numerical simulations of computational fluid dynamic (CFD), under conditions of high outside temperature and high sunshine. The results showed great benefits of using ventilated facades in such external climate conditions. It was also observed that the selection of the variant of ventilated facade in the system of close or open joints has minimal influence on thermal efficiency of the whole partition.
In this paper, a three-layered cement-based wave-absorbing board is designed and prepared by mixing wave-absorbing fillers such as nano-Si3N4, multi-layer nano graphene platelets (NGPs), nano-Ni, carbon fiber (CF) and carbon black (CB) into cement slurry. The effect of the amount of wave-absorbing fillers on the mechanical properties, resistivity and wave-absorbing reflectivity of cement slurry is studies. The microstructure of NGPs, nano-Si3N4 and the wave-absorbing board are characterized by TEM and SEM. Research shows that low content of NGPs and other wave-absorbing fillers can significantly reduce the resistivity of cement slurry and improve its mechanical strength, and dense massive crystals are precipitated in the cement hydration products. The reflectivity test reveals that in the frequency range of 2~18 GHz, the minimum reflectivity of the three-layered cement-based wave absorbing board reaches −18.8 dB, and the maximum bandwidth less than −10 dB reaches 15.3 GHz. This study can serve as reference for the preparation of new three-layered cement-based wave absorbing boards.
Quantitative microstructural evolution and the corresponding microhardness of electrodeposited nanostructured nickel sheet during cold rolling deformation are investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Vicker’s microhardness testing. Particularly, to investigate the effect of stress states on deformation behavior, two series of gradient nanostructured nickel with symmetric structures and the homogeneous counterparts with three levels of grain size are compared based on macro-statistical data. In such hierarchical sandwich-like gradient samples, the layers with larger grain size, as the soft phase, indeed sustain more deformation. Deformation-induced grain rotation changes are observed in the center layers with a relatively larger grain size, accompanied by an obvious decrease in microhardness. According to the quantitative microstructural parameters including the grain size, dislocation density and stacking fault probability before and after deformation, evaluation based on Hall-Petch and Bailey-Hirsch relationships indicates the transition from strain hardening to softening can be attributed to grain orientation change.
Perovskites BaTiO3, La0.1Ba0.9TiO3 and BaFeO3 were prepared by different methods and utilized as photo-catalytic material for the degradation of the AO7 dye, with visible light. The toxicity of the treated solutions and the toxicity of perovskite powders that remained in suspension after centrifuged was assessed.
Different catalytic properties were found by changing synthesis methods, annealing conditions, temperature of assay, initial concentration of pollutant and amount of perovskite in suspension. BaTiO3 was prepared by ceramic or complex polymerization methods. This perovskite presents cubic structure, and the preparation method do not seem to have any influence on the unit cell parameter. On the other hand, annealing temperature has a marked influence on the time needed to attain good crystallinity. In the case of BaFeO3 prepared by the ceramic method, for low annealing temperature there is the formation of tetragonal phase, which changes to hexagonal with the increase in annealing temperature, being a Ba2Fe2O5 monoclinic phase involved in this phase transition.
Regarding AO7 photocatalytic degradation, the best results, with almost complete colour removal, were obtained with BaFeO3 (97%), prepared by ceramic method, and with BaTiO3 (78%), prepared by polymer complex method. Toxicity assays towards Daphnia magna were performed with AO7 25 ppm aqueous solution samples, collected in the centrifuged suspensions of the photocatalytic assays, performed with different perovskites, and samples collected in centrifuged suspensions of perovskite powders. In general, there is no increase in toxicity when compared to the toxicity of an AO7 25 ppm aqueous solution. Only in the photodegradation assay with BaFeO3 a clear increase in toxicity was observed, indicating that toxic by-products are being formed.
Aluminum-silicate cenospheres are the most valuable residue present in fly ashes after combusting stone coal. Cenospheres are hollow bodies with desirable engineering properties, such as hardness, low bulk density and complete chemical inertness, thanks to which they can be used in biomedical engineering. The following review presents data on obtaining and processing the material, as well as potential biomedical applications.
This article presents the results of experimental work carried out both in situ (coring; pressuremeter test) and in the laboratory (drying-wetting and oedometric tests) to describe the volumetric behavior on drying-wetting path of a swelling clayey soil of eastern Algeria. In order to perform drying-wetting tests the osmotic technique and saturated salts solutions were used. These suction-imposed methods have gained widespread acceptance as reliable methods for imposing suction on soil specimens. They allowed to sweep a wide range of suctions between 0 and 500 MPa. The ability to impose suction on soil specimens allows for drying and wetting stress paths to be applied to evaluate resulting changes in state parameters (void ratio, degree of saturation and water content). These paths were carried out on specimens with different initial states. Slurries of soil were used to characterize the reference behavior, while the undisturbed soil samples allow to describe the behavior of material under in situ conditions. In the last part of this article and to specify the behavior observed in the saturated domain, a comparison between the resulting deformations of the drying-wetting test and those resulting from the oedometric test was made.
This study concerns the weldability of dissimilar Ultra high-strength steel (UHSS) and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS), which is used in the modern machine industry. The materials offered superior strength as well as relatively low weight, which reduces microstructure contamination during a live cycle. The choice of the welding process base of the base material (BM) and welding parameters is essential to improve the weld joint quality. S700MC/S960QC was welded using a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process and overmatched filler wire, which was performed using three heat input (7, 10, and 15 kJ/cm). The weld samples were characterized by a Vickers-hardness test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The test reveals a decrease of softening areas in the HAZ and the formation of the stable formation of Bainite-Ferrite for S700MC and Bainite-martensite for S960QC when the heat input of 10 kJ/cm is used. It is recommended to use the GMAW process and Laser welding (Laser beam-MIG), with an optimal welding parameter, which will be achieved a high quality of manufacturing products.
This paper provides a critical review on the current status of graphene-reinforced metal matrix composites (GRMMCs) in an effort to guide future work on this topic. Metal matrix composites are preferred over other types of composites for their ability to meet engineering and structural demands. Graphene is considered an ideal reinforcement material for composites due to its unique structure and extraordinary physical, thermal, and electrical properties. Incorporating graphene as a reinforcement in metals is a way of harnessing its extraordinary properties, resulting in an enhanced metallic behavior for a wide variety of applications. Combining graphene with bulk metal matrices is a recent endeavor that has proven to have merit. A systematic study is needed to critically examine the efforts applied in this field, the successes achieved, and the challenges faced. This review highlights the three main pillars of GRMMCs: synthesis, structure, and properties. First, it discusses the synthesis techniques utilized for the fabrication of GRMMCs. Then, it highlights the resulting microstructures of the composites, including graphene dispersion and interfacial interactions. Finally, it summarizes the enhancements in the mechanical, electrical, thermal, and tribological properties of GRMMCs, while highlighting the effects of graphene type and content on those enhancements.