Al-Li alloy 2198 exhibits good combination of toughness and strength but its application is strongly limited by the poor weldability due to the formation of porosities during fusion-welding. This is the first study proposing and verifying a new approach to produce defect-free laser welds of poorly fusion-weldable Al-Li alloy 2198 with applied external pressure, i.e., feasibility of laser pressure welding to Al-Li alloy 2198 was examined. The microstructures associated with tensile shear behavior of laser pressure welded Al-Li alloy 2198 obtained at various welding parameters were analyzed. The results showed that formation of the welding defect in the weld could be successfully suppressed by applying laser pressure welding, even without shielding gas. Three microstructural zones, including the chill zone, the columnar zone and the equiaxed zone were observed in the fusion zone. Size of fusion zone and area fraction of porosities generally increased with increasing roller pressure and welding heat-input, and they dominantly affected the tensile shear behavior, including the peak load and the failure mode, of the weld.
Selective laser melting (SLM) is considered as an important additive manufacturing (AM) technology which can fabricate parts with complex geometry. However, it is difficult to predict the optimal SLM-parameters of metallic materials. In this study, orthogonal experiments were designed to study the influence of SLM-process parameters on the density and fabricated quality of Hastelloy X superalloy. Moreover, the relationship between microstructure evolution and performance of deposited microstructure was studied after heat treatment. The laser power, scanning speed and energy density have a significant effect on the density of the fabricated parts. The optimal parameters for determining Hastelloy X are 250 W laser power, 500 mm/s scanning speed, 100 μm hatch space, and 30 μmlayer thickness. The deposited microstructure is a lamellar microstructure in the horizontal direction and a columnar crystal in the longitudinal direction, and the microstructure is mainly martensite. After solid-solution and aging treatment, grain grows up. Martensite decomposes and the carbide M6C was precipitated during the aging process. The strength of the microstructure decreases slightly due to the growth of grain size.
This study was aimed at examining the effects of different deoxidization methods on the physical properties of metallic melts by measuring the changes in the kinematic viscosity, electrical resistivity, surface tension, and density of the metallurgical melts during the heating and cooling processes. Our results indicate that high-temperature physical properties are consistently affected by specific elements and compounds.
The liquidus surface projection and isothermal section at 1,800°C in the Mo–Ti–C ternary system are examined using arc-melted alloys. A ternary transition peritectic reaction (L + Mo2C → Mo + TiC) takes place during solidification, which is apparently different from the ternary eutectic reaction (L → Mo + TiC + Mo2C) observed in a previous report. Since the composition of the eutectic reaction (L → Mo + TiC) shifts toward the Mo–Ti binary line with increasing Ti concentration, the volume fraction of the Mo phase and the interlamellar spacing of the Mo and TiC phases increase in the eutectic microstructure. At 1,800°C, the TiC phase in equilibrium with the Mo phase can contain more than 28 at% Mo and a Mo/TiC/Mo2C three-phase region exists at around Mo–15Ti–10C.
During carbon steel manufacturing, large amounts of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are generated. EAF slag, if properly treated and processed into aggregate, is an alternative source of high-quality material, which can substitute the use of natural aggregates in most demanding applications in the construction sector, mostly for wearing asphalt courses. In this screening process of high-quality aggregates, a side material with grain size 0/32 mm is also produced, which can be used as an aggregate for unbound layers in road construction. In this study, the environmental impacts of slag aggregate (fraction 0/32 mm) were evaluated in mixed natural/slag aggregates. Different mixtures of natural/slag aggregates were prepared from aged (28 days) and fresh slag, and their environmental impacts were evaluated using leaching tests. It was shown that among the elements, chromium (Cr) was leached from some mixed aggregates in quantities that exceeded the criterion for inert waste. The data from the present investigation revealed that mixed aggregates, prepared from aged slag (fraction 0/32 mm) and natural stone in the ratio 10/90, are environmentally acceptable and can be safely used in unbound materials for road construction.