The аim is to study family influence on formation of eating and weight disorders. The concept of an “alimentary family” is defined as a family with dysfunctional, disharmonious relationships, which is a prerequisite for emergence and support of distorted patterns of eating behaviour, leading in the future to children’s eating and weight disorders.
Methods: The research was carried out using the method of a thematic retrospective analysis (MTRA)-food, which is a variant of the narrative method, the questionnaire "Parental convictions and control tactics as for eating behaviour of their children during food taking". The data was processed by the content analysis method; Fisher's φ-criterion was used to compare differences between the groups.
Results: The research has allowed us to clarify eating behavioural characteristics and to identify the “roots” of eating disorders. Various forms of forcing at eating, direct and indirect ways of making children to eat or blocking of eating are manifested in ignoring of children’s taste preferences, their desire and readiness to eat. Parents often use manipulative techniques influencing children’s eating behaviour (encouragement, inducement, reward promises, approval, recognition, warning, or switching attention), direct means of influence (coercion: prohibition, restriction, rejection, destructive criticism, intimidation, deprivation from various pleasures). There is the statistical confirmation that parents’ use of manipulative means and / or direct coercion towards their children during eating predetermines formation of pathological processes of corporeality, attitudes and psychological mechanisms stipulating eating disorders.
Conclusions: The research results indicate necessity to develop psychotherapeutic programs for people with eating disorders, as well as programs to help parents improve family relationships and, accordingly, to apply correctional effects on their children.
The issue of parental neglect is a constantly topical one. Neglect is not only the lack of satisfying basic needs, but also the lack of ensuring a sense of security, belonging, and insufficient physical, emotional or verbal closeness with the child. Poor parental care, lack of a sense of closeness and availability of the parent, along with other environmental factors (e.g. addictions, diseases and mental disorders in the family) result in abnormal formation of the child's personality, and can also be associated with depression, anxiety, self-harm or suicide attempts.
The aim of the study was to present the clinical cases of two teenage patients (AA. – 13 years old, BB. – 16 years old) staying in the I Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention in Lublin (Department for Children and Youth), whose mental health problems were caused by a constant neglect on the part of parents.
Case reports: The patients came from dysfunctional families in which members showed a tendency to addiction (alcohol) and were emotionally and physically absent from the lives of the girls. Due to considerable upbringing problems, girls were hospitalized many times, both in paediatric wards and in psychiatric wards for children and adolescents, with various medical diagnoses.
Conclusions: The presented cases of two patients indicate a potential cause-and-effect relationship between parental neglect, coexisting environmental factors (addictions of family members) and abnormal formation of the child's personality, self-harm or suicide attempts. In such family systems, it is extremely important, apart from a court-appointed family guardian, to introduce a family assistant to provide emotional or advisory support.
The Rorschach test is the most well-known psychological test ever invented; it has captured the imagination of entire generations of clinicians, researchers, artists, writers, and ordinary participants in mass culture. Yet, no psychological test has faced such heavily emotional criticism. The drastically ambiguous status of this test in the community of psychologists can be call an identity crisis. This is the diagnosis presented in the book titled Assessment Using the Rorschach Inkblot Test by James P. Choca and Edward D. Rossini, American professors of clinical psychology currently affiliated with the Roosevelt University in Chicago. It was this book that inspired the present article. Choca and Rossini claim that the crisis associated with the use of the inkblot test stems from the lack of understanding of what the essence of this test actually is and from its improper usage. They also indicate realistic and practical ways to overcome this crisis.
Faced with the excessively elaborate systems for processing and interpreting the material obtained using the test, the authors attempt to create a short version of the inkblot test (Basic Rorschach). In the short version it is possible to use a smaller number of categories or even limit oneself to use only four plates instead of ten. Choca and Rossini admit that the Basic Rorschach requires further studies; they are also willing to give psychologists a great degree of freedom and the possibility of deciding what to take into account and what to ignore in the interpretation of results. They also propose to introduce a new final phase of the test, which, in a way, involves the examinee in the process of analyzing his or her responses.
In this paper I address the changes proposed by the authors, concerning both the procedure and the manner of categorizing and interpreting responses. For this purpose, I use own clinical experience and the results of my empirical research.
Evidence from the literature, highlights the increased risk of developing glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with statin therapy. In addition, few animal studies demonstrate that adipsin secreted from adipocytes plays a crucial role in insulin secretion and the development of T2DM.
To further explore the role of serum adipsin, in this prospective open label study, 55 newly diagnosed dyslipidemic patients were enrolled. Before starting statin therapy, liver function test (LFT), kidney function test (KFT), lipid profile, glycemic parameters [glycated hemoglobin A (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)], serum insulin, and serum adipsin were estimated. Then these patients were prescribed statin (i.e. atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, or pitavastatin) and after 12 weeks of therapy, all the above investigations were repeated.
After 12 weeks of statin therapy, the LFT and KFT values remained unchanged and lipid parameters showed significant improvement. But the glycemic parameters deranged significantly (p < 0.001), i.e. FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c increased by 12.49% (102.99 ± 20.76 mg/dL), 24.72% (147.71 ± 47.29 mg/dL), and 21.43% (6.38 ± 1.34%), respectively. On the other hand, the baseline adipsin (2.73 ± 1.99 ng/mL) and insulin (16.13 ± 12.50 mIU/L) levels reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) to 1.43 ±1.13 ng/mL and 6.91 ± 5.93 mIU/L, respectively. The reduction in serum adipsin also showed a positive correlation with reduction in serum insulin (r = 0.85; p < 0.0001). None of the patients experienced any significant adverse effect or reaction leading to discontinuation of therapy.
There might be an association between reduction in adipsin and development of glucose intolerance by statin therapy.
Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women at the reproductive age. In 2018, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) developed and published new accurate recommendations for the diagnosis and management of women with PCOS. In this work, a separate chapter is devoted to the quality of life and mental disorders in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Material and Methods: This article provides an overview of the literature regarding mental disorders associated with PCOS with the focus on the ESHRE recommendations.
Conclusion: The medical staff and patients should be aware of the negative impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on the quality of life, coexistence of depression, anxiety, psychosexual and eating disorders.
Despite the well-studied safety profile of dabigatran, its interactions with genetic polymorphism parameters are poorly understood, especially in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study assessed whether genetic factors can contribute to CKD and alter dabigatran concentration.
Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stage 3 CKD treated with dabigatran 110 or 150 mg have been included in the study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the ABCB1 gene (rs1045642 and rs4148738) and CES1 gene (rs2244613). A plasma trough concentration/dose (C/D) ratio was used as a pharmacokinetic index.
A total of 96 patients aged 51–89 years (median age: 75 years) were evaluated. Patients on a reduced regimen of 110 mg twice a day were older (79.8 vs. 67.9, p < 0.0001) and had lower creatinine clearance (49.7 vs. 62.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.015). Patients with the rs2244613 CC genotype had lower C/D values (70% reduction in the mean C/D vs. AA genotype, p = 0.001). Linear stepwise regression has shown the CKD epidemiology collaboration to be the only significant predictor of C/D among genetic factors and kidney function characteristics. During the median follow-up of 15 months, there were 15 bleedings in 13 patients.
Polymorphism of CES1 rs2244613 can contribute to the safety of dabigatran in patients with AF and CKD. There was no influence of the aforementioned polymorphisms of ABCB1 on dabigatran trough plasma concentrations and C/D. Kidney function is a mainstay of clinical decision-making on direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) dose, and further knowledge should be accumulated on the role of genetic factors.
Diazepam is one of the most commonly prescribed tranquilizers for therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Despite its popularity, there is currently no precise information on the effect of genetic polymorphisms on its efficacy and safety. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy and safety of diazepam in patients with AWS.
The study was conducted on 30 Russian male patients suffering from the AWS who received diazepam in injections at a dosage of 30.0 mg/day for 5 days. The efficacy and safety assessment was performed using psychometric scales and scales for assessing the severity of adverse drug reactions.
Based on the results of the study, we revealed the differences in the efficacy of therapy in patients with different CYP2C19 681G>A (CYP2C19*2, rs4244285) genotypes: (CYP2C19*1/*1) −8.5 [−15.0; −5.0], (CYP2C19*1/*2 and CYP2C19*2/*2) −12.0 [−13.0; −9.0], p = 0.021. The UKU scale scores, which were used to evaluate the safety of therapy, were also different: (CYP2C19*1/*1) 7.0 [6.0; 12.0], (CYP2C19*1/*2 and CYP2C19*2/*2) 9.5 [8.0; 11.0], p = 0.009. Patients carrying different CYP2C19 –806C>T (CYP2C19*17, rs12248560) genotypes also demonstrated differences in therapy efficacy and safety rates.
Thus, the effects of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy of diazepam were demonstrated.
Probiotics are live microbial organisms that provide benefit to the host while co-habitating in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics are safe, available over the counter, and have clinical benefit by reducing the number of antibiotic-associated diarrhea days. Prescriptions from providers and direct consumer demand of probiotics appear to be on the rise. Several recent animal studies have demonstrated that probiotics may have significant effect on absorption of co-administered drugs. However, to date, most probiotic-drug interaction studies in animal models have been limited to bacterial probiotics and nonantibiotic drugs.
We performed a traditional pharmacokinetic mouse study examining the interactions between a common commercially available yeast probiotic, Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Florastor®) and an orally administered amoxicillin.
We showed that there were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters (half-life, area under the curve, peak concentrations, time to reach maximum concentration, elimination rate constant) of amoxicillin between the probiotic treated and untreated control groups.
Altogether, our findings suggest that coadministration or concurrent use of S. boulardii probiotic and amoxicillin would not likely alter the efficacy of amoxicillin therapy.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disease that causes severe inflammation and even disabilities. Previous studies have reported baicalein to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the pharmacological action of baicalein on anaphylaxis has not been clarified yet. This study assessed the in vivo protective effect of baicalein post-treatment in an ameliorating ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized AR rat model. Baicalein attenuated histological alterations, aberrant tissue repair and inflammation after OVA-induced AR. Baicalein reduced the frequency of nasal/ear rubs and sneezes in rats, and inhibited generation of several inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in both blood and nasal lavage of rats. Infiltrations of eosinophils, lymphocyte, and neutrophils were decreased in baicalein-administered rats. Furthermore, baicalein inhibited the expression of STAT3 phosphorylation in the nasal mucosa. In summary, baicalein attenuated OVA-induced AR and inflammation, which suggests it as a promising therapeutic agent for the alleviation of AR-associated inflammation and pathology.
Despite several shortcomings such as extreme hydrophobicity, low drug capacity, characteristic triphasic drug release pattern with a high burst effect, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid derivatives are widely used in drug delivery. Most frequent attempts to improve their properties are blending with other polymers or synthesis of block copolymers. We introduce a new class of branched poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) derivatives as promising biodegradable carriers for prolonged or targeted drug release systems, employed as thin adhesive films, solid dispersions, in situ forming implants or nanoparticles. A series of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) derivatives with lower molar mass and star or comb architecture were synthesized by a simple, catalyst free, direct melt polycondensation method not requiring purification of the obtained sterile product by precipitation. Branching monomers used were mannitol, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, tripentaerythritol and polyacrylic acid. The products were characterized by molar mass averages, average branching ratio, rheological and thermal properties.