Acalypha wilkesiana is a tropical herb used for the treatment of skin disorders. Phytochemical studies carried out on the pulverized dried leaves of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. The crude 50% methanol extract obtained from the dried leaves was sequentially partitioned into three fractions. Thin layer chromatography of the fractions revealed three (3) components each in hexane fraction; ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction of the plant extract. Column chromatography of the fractions was carried out. The infrared analyses of the components revealed the presence of alkenes, hydroxyl group, conjugate carbonyls, esters in the hexane fraction components. Those from the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contained aliphatic amides or amines with carbonyl and esters attached in the two fractions. Essential oil was extracted from the dried leaves using hydro-distillation method. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of major compounds which included: n-Hexadecanoic acid 4-Hexen-2-one-3-methyl, Pyrrole and 6- Benzamido-4-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5. The presence of the functional groups inferred from IR and GC-MS analyses with the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil may support the use of the plant in the management of skin infections, gastrointestinal disorders and other ailments.
Malaria and toxoplasmosis are two important parasitic diseases with significant public health concerns in the Sub-Saharan African countries. Some aspects of pathogenesis of the two parasitic diseases involve the central nervous system manifesting neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies have implicated the single infection by Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in development of psychosis. Although concomitant infection of the two parasites suggests an aggravated psychotic condition, there is currently no reported study. This article reviewed some studies which implicated malaria and toxoplasmosis in psychosis. It further explored the likely role of concurrent infection by the parasites on psychosis, the dynamics of their pathology and possible effects of certain psychosis-associated cytokines and other biomolecules on the central nervous system. We recommend evidence-based research efforts in this field for the effective management of these two parasitic diseases to abate the public health burden of psychosis.
As a result of the activity of industrial enterprises, atmospheric air is being contaminated by gaseous pollutants. Such substances as chlorine and hydrogen chloride are considered to be harmful for both humans and plants. Vegetation is a universal filter that is able to combat the environmental pollution by industrial emissions with the help of appropriate technical facilities. The aim of this study is to analyze the level of accumulation of chlorine in the leaves of woody plants that grow in the area of forest plantations of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises. The objects of the study were the species of woody plants in the area of protective plantations of a number of enterprises in Zaporizhzhya: ZTMC, ZALК, ZABR, Zaporizhstal, Zaporizhzhya Ferroalloy Plant, Zaporizhvohnetryv, Ukrgrafit and Zaporizhtransformator. We established that during the vegetation period, a gradual accumulation of the element was the most intense in mature leaves, whose growth had already ceased. The maximum amount of chlorine was found at the end of the vegetation period. The concentration of the pollutant in leaves of woody plants in the area of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises is linearly proportional to the level of emissions of the pollutant into the atmosphere by a given enterprise. The largest coefficient of relative accumulation of chlorine in the leaves of such plants as Catalpa bignonioides, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juglans regia, Populus alba, which can be used as information sites for the purpose of bioindication of atmospheric air pollution with chlorides, was established.