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Abstract

This document summarizes and extends definitions and notations for the description of tactic polymers and the diad structures of which they are composed. It formally recognizes and resolves apparent inconsistencies between terminology used in the polymer field to describe tactic polymers and terminology in more common use in organic chemistry. Specifically, the terms m and r diads are recommended to replace the terms meso and racemo diads. The definitions are also updated from those in the existing Stereochemistry Document to use the term ‘stereogenic centre’, rather than ‘chiral or prochiral atoms’. Further, the terms relating to tacticity have been defined for the constituent macromolecules, rather than for the polymers composed of those macromolecules. Therefore, this document also forms an addendum and corrigendum to the 1981 document, ‘Stereochemical definitions and notations relating to polymers’.

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Abstract

The waste stream of obsolete electronic equipment grows exponentially, creating a worldwide pollution and resource problem. Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) comprises a heterogeneous mix of glass, plastics (including flame retardants and other additives), metals (including rare Earth elements), and metalloids. The e-waste issue is complex and multi-faceted. In examining the different aspects of e-waste, informal recycling in developing countries has been identified as a primary concern, due to widespread illegal shipments; weak environmental, as well as health and safety, regulations; lack of technology; and inadequate waste treatment structure. For example, Nigeria, Ghana, India, Pakistan, and China have all been identified as hotspots for the disposal of e-waste. This article presents a critical examination on the chemical nature of e-waste and the resulting environmental impacts on, for example, microbial biodiversity, flora, and fauna in e-waste recycling sites around the world. It highlights the different types of risk assessment approaches required when evaluating the ecological impact of e-waste. Additionally, it presents examples of chemistry playing a role in potential solutions. The information presented here will be informative to relevant stakeholders seeking to devise integrated management strategies to tackle this global environmental concern.