With the rapid development of deep learning techniques, the popularity of voice services implemented on various Internet of Things (IoT) devices is ever increasing. In this paper, we examine user-level membership inference in the problem space of voice services, by designing an audio auditor to verify whether a specific user had unwillingly contributed audio used to train an automatic speech recognition (ASR) model under strict black-box access. With user representation of the input audio data and their corresponding translated text, our trained auditor is effective in user-level audit. We also observe that the auditor trained on specific data can be generalized well regardless of the ASR model architecture. We validate the auditor on ASR models trained with LSTM, RNNs, and GRU algorithms on two state-of-the-art pipelines, the hybrid ASR system and the end-to-end ASR system. Finally, we conduct a real-world trial of our auditor on iPhone Siri, achieving an overall accuracy exceeding 80%. We hope the methodology developed in this paper and findings can inform privacy advocates to overhaul IoT privacy.
In a Functional Encryption scheme (FE), a trusted authority enables designated parties to compute specific functions over encrypted data. As such, FE promises to break the tension between industrial interest in the potential of data mining and user concerns around the use of private data. FE allows the authority to decide who can compute and what can be computed, but it does not allow the authority to control which ciphertexts can be mined. This issue was recently addressed by Naveed et al., that introduced so-called Controlled Functional encryption (or C-FE), a cryptographic framework that extends FE and allows the authority to exert fine-grained control on the ciphertexts being mined. In this work we extend C-FE in several directions. First, we distribute the role of (and the trust in) the authority across several parties by defining multi-authority C-FE (or mCFE). Next, we provide an efficient instantiation that enables computation of quadratic functions on inputs provided by multiple data-owners, whereas previous work only provides an instantiation for linear functions over data supplied by a single data-owner and resorts to garbled circuits for more complex functions. Our scheme leverages CCA2 encryption and linearly-homomorphic encryption. We also implement a prototype and use it to showcase the potential of our instantiation.