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Abstract

Human existence is accompanied by environmental sounds as by-products of people’s activities and sounds that are intentionally generated to allow human society to function. The resulting soundscapes that surround people’s daily existence are subject to technological, as well as behavioural change. Cultural heritage management has begun to address the question of which sounds and soundscapes should be preserved and maintained as part of humanity’s legacy to future generations. A side-effect of the dramatic social and behavioural change caused by governmental responses to COVID-19 has been a dramatic temporary alteration of urban cultural sound-scapes. In this paper we will consider the nature and extent of these and will explore to what extent the COVID-19-induced reality can be employed to project a future of urban cultural soundscapes if no active heritage intervention were to occur.

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed in Italy at the end of January 2020, when the first positive cases for the virus were identified. At the beginning of March, the virus had spread to all Italian regions and on 10 March 2020 the lockdown phase began, limiting the movement of people and prohibiting almost all commercial activities, businesses and non-essential industries. As a result, millions of people were forced to stay at home, causing a drastic drop in traffic volume, which significantly changed the acoustic environment and air quality of cities. On 4 May 2020, the lockdown was partially lifted and activities were progressively reopened. Therefore, traffic gradually started to increase and, consequently, the noise emitted by motor vehicles. This behaviour was confirmed by the data collected by the DYNAMAP system, an automatic platform developed within the LIFE DYNAMAP project, providing real time traffic noise maps in terms of sound pressure levels and impacts at receivers (people and dwellings exposed to noise level bands). In this paper traffic and non-traffic-related noise events in the cities of Rome and Milan from March to May 2020 are analysed and compared to the corresponding values in 2019 to evaluate the effects of the lockdown period.

Abstract

The paper presents analytical and numerical analysis of the pin connection resistance made of high-strength steel used in the temporary bridge ŽM 60. The assessment of the pin connection was performed according to standard [1] and also using numerical analysis by means of numerical sophisticated calculations based on FEM analyses.

Abstract

The article presents test research on thermal sensations, thermal preferences, as well as general thermal sensations in a single-family building. Graphs were drawn to determine the frequency of answers chosen by the respondents and the relationship between temperature and thermal sensations, as well as the influence of relative humidity on thermal sensations. A comparison was also made between the average thermal sensation vote and the PMV index, which determines the ‘predicted mean vote’ - estimated by the Fanger model. The aim of the study was to compare the actual feelings of the respondents with standard guidelines. As a result of this analysis it was found that the thermal sensations of the respondents do not comply with the adopted model included in the standard.

Abstract

The first precast post-tensioned bridges in Slovakia are approaching 60 years of their service life. Facing an aging infrastructure, it is necessary to assess their present structural condition and residual life expectancy. Different types and methods of anchorage system were developed and available for first post-tensioned bridges around the world. The reliability and functionality of anchorages contribute to the proper behaviour of post-tensioning system. The considerable effect of aggressive environment (frost, chloride salts, humidity) and environmental load (CO2) leads to corrosion of anchorages and prestressing steel with the risk of a sudden unexpected damage to bridge. The research work deals into finding more details of this structural part. During the demolition of damaged post-tensioned bridges built in 1960s several anchorages were removed and analysed. The material properties, size parameters and performed tensile tests of a wedge anchorage system are summarised in this paper. The findings from this study can be used as input parameters for numerical simulation and durability assessment of similar aged existing post-tensioned bridges.

Abstract

An increase production of wastes from different companies and agricultural areas creates severe surrounding trouble in terms of management and removal in Ethiopia. Utilization of by-products and residue in construction work is an excellent alternative solution in reducing disposal problems. In this research, the application of sawdust ash in asphalt concrete production is investigated as filler material. Physical and chemical tests were investigated for Saw Dust Ash (SDA). Asphalt specimen prepared using basaltic stone dust without sawdust as filler used as a control material. The SDA was partially replaced with 3 %, 6 %, 9 %, and 12 % by amount of basaltic dust. Performance evaluation of combinations was explored with fatigue, tensile strength, and deformation resistances experiment. The outcome pointed that the use of SDA as packing material enhanced the fatigue life and permanent deformation of asphalt concrete with variable temperature. Furthermore, it was identified that the combination with SDA indicated less sensitive to moisture than basaltic dust. Research finding indicated, an optimum value of SDA could be replaced the basaltic dust is 12 % in asphaltic concrete production.

Abstract

This paper presents the calculations of the summer thermal stability of a critical room of the given building. In this case, the critical room of the building is an attic room. Using two different software (SIMULACE and DesignBuilder), the summer thermal stability of the attic room was evaluated according to the Czech standard ČSN 73 0540-2 [1]. This standard compares the calculated and required value of the maximum internal temperature in the summer period. The results from both software were compared with the Czech standard and also with each other. The resulting temperature courses in the interior differ by a few Celsius degrees. In conclusion, the causes of different results are discussed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of both software.

Abstract

The port of Bushehr, with its valuable and unique historical texture, completely matches with its unbearable climate conditions. Over hundreds of years, the port has provided an appropriate ground for human life as no air conditioner is needed there. Unfortunately, this valuable old texture has been destroyed inadvertently. New buildings in the port are just superficial copies of the old buildings’ external surfaces, with no attention to their goal, i.e., the provision of thermal comfort for inhabitants. The new buildings are dramatically increasing without considering the historical texture and climate. As a result, the inhabitants have to use air conditioners in most months continuously; hence, there would be an increase in energy consumption and a disruption in climate balance. This study has been conducted to compare the compatibility of such architecture with the climate and its success in providing climate comfort for the inhabitants. According to the information obtained from the study, the old houses built more than 100 years ago using traditional design had better performance in adaptability with climate. Accordingly, the exploitation of traditional instructions and patterns in a new format would largely reduce energy consumption in hot seasons and eliminate the need for heating in cold seasons. In this regard, a huge amount of energy is saved, resulting in less damage to the environment.

Abstract

Iranians used wind catchers to achieve harmony between a structure and the environment and guarantee the environmental comfort of the indoor areas. Wind catchers were the symbols of Persian architecture and with introduction of modern technologies, these traditional elements became obsolete. Rapid population and traffic lead to use underground spaces in cities. This paper proves the ability of wind-catchers to provide natural ventilation in underground spaces based on climatic parameters. Simulation was conducted in complete computational fluid dynamics package to simulate wind in underground space. Results demonstrate that in specific climate condition, wind-catchers could provide natural ventilation for underground space.

Abstract

This research aims at comparing the thermal performance of walls made from traditional and alternative building materials. The experimental study involves five types of walls were studied based on perforated ceramic bricks and a mixture of clay, sand with various straw proportions. Specialized software and the finite element method (FEA) were employed for modelling of the thermal processes and their visualization for the different types of walls. A simulation modelling algorithm was developed. The models developed show very good convergence of the results and provide for subsequent design and thermal calculation of constructions made by environmentally friendly materials.