Architects and engineers have been always attracted by concrete shell structures due to their high efficiency and plastic shapes. In this paper the possibility to use concrete shells to support footbridges is explored. Starting from Musmeci’s fundamental research and work in shell bridge design, the use of numerical form-finding methods is analysed. The form-finding of a shell-supported footbridge shaped following Musmeci’s work is first introduced. Coupling Musmeci’s and Nervi’s experiences, an easy construction method using a stay-in-place ferrocement formwork is proposed. Moreover, the advantage of inserting holes in the shell through topology optimization to remove less exploited concrete has been considered. Curved shell-supported footbridges have been also studied, and the possibility of supporting the deck with the shell top edge, that is along a single curve only, has been investigated. The form-finding of curved shell-supported footbridges has been performed using a Particle-Spring System and Thrust Network Analysis. Finally, the form-finding of curved shell-supported footbridges subjected to both vertical and horizontal forces (i.e. earthquake action) has been implemented.
In this study, a numerical investigation tensile test using ANSYS on three different carbon and alloy sheets of steel: AISI 1030 medium carbon steel, AISI 1080 high carbon steel and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) A606 steel, has been carried out. The influences of three different specimen geometries on the stress–strain curve were also investigated. Understanding the properties of these materials, such as stress–strain obtained from a tensile test, is important. Materials are subjected to forces or loads when in use, for example, steel in a ship’s hull experiences significant stresses and strains. In such situations, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the material because grounding or collisions can occur, which deform the materials. The differences in stress and strain obtained from three specimens with different geometries and mesh sizes of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mm for all proposed steels, were observed. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength was always lower in specimen 2 compared to the other specimens. Furthermore, the highest von Mises stress and strain contour was located in the midsection of specimens 1 and 3 in all of the proposed materials.
This study aims to investigate the damping behavior of the fundamental mode of a foam-filled carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) tube when subjected to base excitations. In particular, expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam balls (with negligible mass) of different sizes are used as fillers in the tube and the enhancement in damping ratio of the fundamental mode w.r.t the empty condition is evaluated for different intensity of base excitation. Shake table tests are performed on cantilever CFRP composite square hollow tube subjected to base excitation with varying amplitudes. The tube is filled with foam balls (of two different sizes) for varying depths of filling (no filling, one-third, two-third, and full). Accelerometers are mounted at different positions along the tube length and at the table to record the accelerations data for evaluation of damping ratio. From the recorded responses, frequency, mode shape and damping ratio of the fundamental mode are evaluated using a well-known approach. The damping ratio is noted to be around 1.41x (times) higher for the completely foam ball (bigger size) filled case under r.m.s base acceleration of 0.3 g when compared with the values corresponding to the empty case. The results suggest that the bigger foam balls enhance the damping ratio significantly without altering the natural frequency owing to additional energy dissipation in friction and impact generated through the sliding and collision of the balls while the tube is in motion.