A space truss structural system is a three-dimensional arrangement of linear elements in a pyramid pattern forming a Double Layer Grid (DLG) system. Space trusses are an elegant and economical means of covering larger areas such as roof systems, in a wide variety of applications such as a stadium, aircraft-hanger, assembly hall, etc. The major problem encountered in using the space truss as a roofing system is the sudden failure of the whole structure due to critical buckling of the top chord member. Earlier research has shown that the optimal solution to overcome such a failure is by providing a small thickness of concrete slab over the space truss, so that the space truss with concrete slab (Composite Space Truss) will act as a floor system for the multi-storey building. For better ventilation and lighting in the building, the need for openings in the composite space truss is unavoidable; however, providing an opening in the concrete slab will reduce the load carrying capacity of the structure. The analysis of a composite space truss of size 30m x 30m with all possible locations of openings for four different support conditions was carried out using ANSYS in order to study the load - deflection behaviour. Further, the ductility factor and energy absorption capacity of the composite space truss with different locations of slab openings were compared.
In this paper, based on the RC frame structure of an industrial building, the finite element model of the structure is developed, according to the Chinese code for seismic design of buildings . Considering the lack of seismic performance, the buckling restrained brace (BRB) is adopted for seismic retrofitting, and various configurations of buckling restrained support are considered for reinforcement. The elastic response spectrum analysis (RSA) and direct integration nonlinear time history analyses (NL-TH) are carried out for the frame structure before and after reinforcement using ETABS finite element software. From the joints displacement, inter-story displacement, inter-story shear force, acceleration, energy dissipation, and other aspects of the seismic response of the strengthened structure and the non-strengthened structure, the comparison has been made. The effect of buckling restrained support and common support on the existing building structure is verified through analytical modeling. After reinforcement, there is a 40%, 39.3%, 40%, 36.4%, and 38.3% reduction in the first period of vibration after the building is strengthened by inverted BRB, V BRB, two-story BRB, single BRB, and ordinary steel braces, respectively. Strengthening of the structure by buckling restrained braces and ordinary steel braces both decrease the original building displacement by more than 50% from the first to the fourth floor. Under severe earthquakes, the use of BRB reduced the column shear by 46.6%; similarly, the incorporation of ordinary steel braces reduced the column shear by 4.72%. It is concluded that using buckling restrained braces will increase the vertical stiffness of the structure to a very high extent.
Ballasted columns are an interesting technique for improving compressible soils in situ. Their major advantages are to reduce compaction, increase the bearing capacity of soils, accelerate consolidation, and eliminate the risks of liquefaction during earthquakes. Thanks to these advantages, reinforcement processes are considerably developed in the field of geotechnical construction and this is on an international scale.
Numerical modelling is a necessary and effective alternative for approaching the real behavior of soils reinforced by ballasted columns. The present work aims to change several parameters, being, among others, the number of columns, the rise of the water table, and the friction angle. With this in mind, a parametric study was carried out in order to determine the influence of certain parameters on the settlement results and observe their influence on the mechanical behavior of the soil using the Plaxis 2D calculation code.
This study found that the correct choice was based on the number of columns, which is three, while the increase in groundwater level does not have a significant influence on the results.
Cost estimation, as one of the key processes in construction projects, provides the basis for a number of project-related decisions. This paper presents some results of studies on the application of artificial intelligence and machine learning in cost estimation. The research developed three original models based either on ensembles of neural networks or on support vector machines for the cost prediction of the floor structural frames of buildings. According to the criteria of general metrics (RMSE, MAPE), the three models demonstrate similar predictive performance. MAPE values computed for the training and testing of the three developed models range between 5% and 6%. The accuracy of cost predictions given by the three developed models is acceptable for the cost estimates of the floor structural frames of buildings in the early design stage of the construction project. Analysis of error distribution revealed a degree of superiority for the model based on support vector machines.
Concrete possesses distinct features that make it widely acceptable for use across the globe; however, along with its obvious benefits, it has numerous drawbacks i.e., it is brittle in nature and its production causes an adverse impact on the environment. To counter such problems, researchers around the world have introduced sustainable measures. Fibre addition is foremost among these solutions in that it prevents crack propagation and increases the overall strength of concrete. In the present age, civil engineering structures have their own structural and durability requirements and so, modification in traditional concrete has become a necessity. This research is targeted at steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC), which is a superior quality concrete because of its enhanced strength. The steel fibres are obtained from binding wire that is used to tie the steel reinforcement. By referring to past research, steel fibres with an aspect ratio (length to diameter ratio) of 30 were considered favourable. The controlled, mixed design of the concrete was prepared with a targeted strength of 4000 psi and, while mixing the concrete ingredients, fibres were added to allow uniform dispersion. The fresh and hardened properties of workability, compressive, and tensile strength were tested and the results of fibres at 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% concrete mass were compared and analysed. The results indicated that highest compressive and tensile strength values were achieved with 3% fibre addition. However, with further addition, it was observed that concrete loses its workability. Therefore, it is suggested that 1% addition of steel fibres produces good strength with sufficient workability.
The use of expert systems in the world of civil engineering, and in particular for roads, has become a necessity for the reason of the particularity, complexity, and diversity of the influencing parameters at the level of the design calculation, the latter of which represents the major source of subsequent degradation. This system consists of proposing a tool for helping the user firstly to size the body of the roadway, with several analytical methods and models (Pre-project, Boussinesq, Westgaard, and Burmister), and secondly, to offer different design possibilities (thickness and type of the material) that make up the layers. Lastly, it is to calculate the stresses and strains in order to compare them with admissible limits. The management of a knowledge base of complex natures (words, sentences, numbers, symbols, tables, calculation methods, equations, conditions, etc.) requires an adequate methodology which goes beyond the simple use of the technology but enables you to imagine the process of regrouping this mass of complex data and classifying the data, which can then be integrated into a database or spreadsheets and external programs designed with code compatible with the expert system generator. Our contribution relates initially to the formulation, organization, and preparation of the algorithms, and then the starting of the programs in order to conceive fully executable programs, the latter of which we can call the expert system. The validation of such a system was made as the work progressed, changes were made in the formulation of the rules, and the order and orientation of the data in the knowledge that the advantage of this type of system is the possibility of permanently reinforcing the database with human expertise in the field, or in books, especially so that we can avoid data loss due to illnesses, retirement, etc.
As science keeps evolving over time, new solutions are being put forward for reducing structural damage. One such solution is the use of seismic isolation systems. Seismic isolation systems reduce the response of structures to the force of earthquakes by reducing the input (force) acceleration when the natural period of the structure increases. Therefore, the use of seismic isolation systems is recommended in the analysis of diverse structures. This study was carried out on seismically isolated buildings with 8, 10, and 12 regular steel floors, modeled by a non-linear isolator in two-, or three-second periods. The differences in data and the responses of the buildings were compared with fixed-base buildings with 8, 10, and 12 floors.
The aim of the article is to present the method of horticultural therapy (gardening therapy) and its application in designing green areas using the example of the sensory garden at the “Światło” hospice in Toruń. The issue of horticultural therapy and its use in shaping green areas was raised due to the important role of greenery in human life (e.g. they absorb pollutants, produce oxygen, perform an insulating function) and the growing importance of horticultural therapy in the design of usable areas. The final effect of this research process is the design of a sensory garden based on horticultural therapy. The concept uses selected types of greenery which, through their properties, have a positive effect on the well-being and health of patients and, indirectly, the inhabitants of the entire city.
One of the basic threats in terms of concrete used for tanks or ducts applied in wastewater management is the phenomenon of biogenic sulphate corrosion (BSC). BSC is a particular case of corrosion caused by the action of sulphuric acid (IV), which is formed as a result of a number of biochemical processes, which can take place, e.g. in an environment encountered within the aforementioned structures. Ions present in sulphuric acid react with cement hydration products, which leads to replacing the primary cement matrix components with compounds easily-soluble or highly-swelling during crystallization. The outcome of advanced corrosion is usually an observed formation of a white, amorphous, sponge-like mass, which is easily separated from the underlying concrete. The article discusses a case study of a BSC process in a newly constructed primary settling tank in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.