Bromine diffusion was measured in two natural phonolitic melts: (1) a K2O-rich (~10 wt%) one synthesized from the white pumice phase of the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius (Italy), and (2) a Na2O-rich (~10 wt%) one corresponding to the most differentiated melt of the 12 000 BC eruption of the Laacher See (Germany). Experiments were performed at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa, 1250 to 1450 °C, at anhydrous and hydrous (2.65 ± 0.35 wt% of dissolved water) conditions. Experiments conducted with the diffusion-couple technique in the piston cylinder were performed with only bromine diffusing and with the simultaneous diffusion of a halogen mixture (F, Cl, Br) to evaluate the interactions between the halogens during diffusion. The diffusion profiles of Br were measured by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation microprobe (SYXRF), ID18F, at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, France). Bromine diffusion displays Arrhenian behavior under anhydrous conditions that is similar when it diffuses alone and when it diffuses with F and Cl. The Br diffusion coefficients range between 2 × 10–12 m2/s at 1250 °C and 1.5 × 10–11 m2/s at 1450 °C for the Na-rich melt and between 3 × 10–12 m2/s at 1250 °C and 2.5 × 10–11 m2/s at 1450 °C for the K-rich melt, at 1.0 GPa. Although Br mobility is independent of F and Cl in anhydrous phonolitic melts, its behavior may be dependent on the dominant alkali in the melt, as previously observed for Cl, but not F. For hydrous experiments, although the data are scattered, the Br diffusivity increases slightly with water and the Na/K ratio seems to influence Br diffusivity. Similarly to noble gases, halogen diffusivity at a given temperature in the phonolitic melts appears related to the ionic porosity of the silicate structure. Compared to basaltic melt, Br diffusivities are approximately one order of magnitude lower in the Na-phonolite melt, because of the difference of the pre-exponential factor. Br mobility appears to be decoupled from melt viscosity, considering the results here.
Gadolinite [REE2Fe2+Be2Si2O10] is a common mineral in certain types of rare element and rare earth element (REL-REE) pegmatites. Changes in pegmatite environment during and after gadolinite formation may be devised by studying its crystal-chemical properties and a thorough observation of microfeatures in the mineral matrix. Post-crystallization processes in pegmatite might trigger alteration mechanisms in gadolinite like in other REE-rich pegmatite minerals, whereby various late-magmatic or metasomatic events may affect mineral chemistry. Three gadolinite samples originating from various pegmatite occurrences in southern Norway offer an excellent opportunity in studying post-crystallization evolution of the pegmatites; by determining their crystallographic, chemical, and micro-textural features, imprints of the related processes in the pegmatites have been characterized in this study. Relevant mineral information was collected in recrystallization experiments of fully or slightly metamictized gadolinite samples and subsequent XRD analyses. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and scanning electron microscope–backscattered electron–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-BSE-EDS) analyses were employed to retrieve micro-chemical properties and related micro-textural features of the mineral matrix. With a reference to the gadolinite supergroup, a general alteration path can be envisaged outlining the pegmatite evolution and suggesting the occurrence of the secondary REE mineral phases: altered gadolinite domains prove Ca enrichment with a tendency toward the hingganite composition, while a slight fluorine increase and sporadic secondary fluorite occurrence imply a significant role of fluorine as a complexing agent in the dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism of metasomatic alteration in the mineral. Micro-Raman spectra show improved vibration statistics for the altered gadolinite domains, which could be linked to the substitution of rare earth elements (REE) by Ca and a possible increase of structural ordering within the gadolinite structure, being at the same time an indication of structural healing of metamictized domains by metasomatic processes. A study of microfeatures in the complex silicates like gadolinite proves to be an excellent tool to trace post-crystallization processes in a pegmatitic environment. With a slight redistribution of radionuclides during an alteration in gadolinite, a moderate precaution has to be taken when selecting gadolinite for U-Th-Pb dating.
Zinc-rich fluor-elbaite from Piława Górna, Poland, was studied by electron microprobe (EPMA), single-crystal X‑ray difraction (SREF), and Raman spectroscopy (RS) to check the possibility of the application of RS to draw crystal-chemical conclusions for Al-rich and Li-bearing tourmalines on basis of the O–H stretching vibrations in the spectral range 3400–3800 cm–1. This tourmaline, forming a thin metasomatic zone around gahnite, features varying compositions with a ZnO content reaching in the studied fragment of 5.70(12) wt%. The crystal structure of this Zn-rich fluor-elbaite [a = 15.921(1), c = 7.127(1) Å] was refined with a R1 value of 1.67%. Its formula was determined on the basis of electron-microprobe and structure refinement as X(Na0.84◻0.14Ca0.01)Σ1.00Y(Al1.06Li0.84Zn0.69The deconvolution of the O–H stretching vibration bands, performed by fitting of an input model of component bands with Gaussian function shapes for the empirical spectrum, indicates that each of the three maxima assigned for VOH bonded to YAl3+, Y2+, and YLi+ and with the total integral intensity of at least 75% of the total OH content could be resolved into 1 to 3 bands, depending on the X-site occupation (vacancies, Na+, and Ca2+). The deconvolution indicates further that several low intense bands of WO–H modes above a Raman shift of 3600 cm–1, totally reaching ≤25%, are dependent on the occupation of triplets of YYY cations bonded to the hydroxyl. These WO–H modes are also influenced by the X-site occupation. Due to ordering of all octahedral cations (except Al) at the Y site and a complete occupation of the Z site by Al and the V site by OH, it seems possible to evaluate the Li and OH contents in a Al-rich and Li-bearing tourmaline directly from the Raman spectrum. By using the ratio VOHIYAlZAlZAl/(VOHIYZZ + WOHIYYY) as evaluated from RS, corresponding to the ratio YAl/V+WOH in the crystal, the formula of the Zn-rich fluor-elbaite can be calculated as where Y2+ = Zn + Fe + Mn. The formula, determined only on basis of EPMA and deconvolution of RS in the O–H stretching bands, corresponds very well (≤1 SD range of EPMA) to the formula determined on basis of EPMA and SREF. This result implicates that the O–H stretching vibrations, measured by Raman spectroscopy, could be applied for Al-rich and Li-bearing tourmalines as a useful tool for providing additional information for determining the crystal-chemical formula. It is also very helpful when crystal structural data are not available.
The modification of natural zeolites via ion exchange is an efficient technique used to improve their performances and tune their properties for specific applications. In this study, a natural levyne-Ca intergrown with erionite was fully exchanged by Ag+ and its structure [with idealized chemical composition Ag6(Si,Al)18O36·18H2O] was investigated by combining a theoretical and experimental approach. Single-crystal X-ray difraction data demonstrated that Ag-levyne maintained the R3m space group, characteristic of the natural levyne. Ag ions distribute over partially occupied sites along the threefold axis and, differently from the pristine material, at the wall of the 8-membered ring window of the lev cavity. The lack of ~30% of Ag ions that could not be located by the structural refinement is ascribed to the strong disorder of the extraframework occupants. The structural results obtained by Molecular Dynamics simulations are in overall agreement with the experimental data and showed that, on average, Ag+ is surrounded by ~2 H2O and 1 framework oxygen at distances between 2.43 and 2.6 Å. Molecular Dynamics trajectories indicate that the occurrence of silver inside the D6R cage depends on the water content: silver occupancy of D6R cages is estimated to be 83, 30, and 0% when the structure contains 3, 2.5, and 2 H2O per Ag ion, respectively.
The cation-exchange process, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) spectrometry, affects the intergrown erionite as well. A structural characterization of the Ag-erionite phase (with dimension <100 μm) was possible by means of a CuKα micro-focus source: structure solution pointed to P63/mmc space group, indicating no change with respect to natural erionite. In agreement with previous studies, K ions in the cancrinite cage could not be exchanged, whereas Ag+ is found in the eri cavity.
We report on the occurrence of a new high-pressure Ca-Al-silicate in localized shock melt pockets found in the feldspatic lunar meteorite Oued Awlitis 001 and discuss the implications of our discovery. The new mineral crystallized as tiny, micrometer-sized, acicular grains in shock melt pockets of roughly anorthitic bulk composition. Transmission electron microscopy based three-dimensional electron diffraction (3D ED) reveals that the CaAl4Si2O11 crystals are identical to the calcium aluminum silicate (CAS) phase first reported from static pressure experiments. The new mineral has a hexagonal structure, with a space group of P63/mmc and lattice parameters of a = 5.42(1) Å; c = 12.70(3) Å; V = 323(4) Å3; Z = 2. This is the first time 3D ED was applied to structure determination of an extraterrestrial mineral. The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) has approved this naturally formed CAS phase as the new mineral “donwilhelmsite” [CaAl4Si2O11], honoring the U. S. lunar geologist Don E. Wilhelms. On the Moon, donwilhelmsite can form from the primordial feldspathic crust during impact cratering events. In the feldspatic lunar meteorite Oued Awlitis 001, needles of donwilhelmsite crystallized in ~200 mm sized shock melt pockets of anorthositic-like chemical composition. These melt pockets quenched within milliseconds during declining shock pressures. Shock melt pockets in meteorites serve as natural crucibles mimicking the conditions expected in the Earth’s mantle. Donwilhelmsite forms in the Earth’s mantle during deep recycling of aluminous crustal materials, and is a key host for Al and Ca of subducted sediments in most of the transition zone and the uppermost lower mantle (460–700 km). Donwilhelmsite bridges the gap between kyanite and the Ca-component of clinopyroxene at low pressures and the Al-rich Ca-ferrite phase and Ca-perovskite at high-pressures. In ascending buoyant mantle plumes, at about 460 km depth, donwilhelmsite is expected to break down into minerals such as garnet, kyanite, and clinopyroxene. This process may trigger minor partial melting, releasing a range of incompatible minor and trace elements and contributing to the enriched mantle (EM1 and EM2) components associated with subducted sedimentary lithologies.
The thermal infrared (TIR, or vibrational) emission spectra of a suite of synthetic Mg-Fe olivines exhibit notable differences from their natural igneous counterparts in terms of their band shapes, relative depths, and reduced shifts in some band positions with Mg-Fe solid solution. Comparable reflectance spectra acquired from olivine-dominated matrices and fusion crusts of some carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exhibit similar deviations. Here we show that these unusual spectral characteristics are consistent with crystallite sizes much smaller than the resolution limit of infrared light. We hypothesize that these small crystallites denote abbreviated crystal growth and also may be linked to the size of nucleation sites. Other silicates and non-silicates, such as carbonates, exhibit similar spectral behaviors. Because the spectra of mineral separates are commonly used in the modeling and analysis of comparable bulk rock, meteorite, and remote sensing data, understanding these spectral variations is important to correctly identifying the minerals and interpreting the origin and/or secondary processing histories of natural materials.
We report the first occurrence of magmatic haggertyite (BaFe6Ti5MgO19) from the Miocene lamproites of the West Kimberley region of Western Australia. This contrasts with the metasomatic formation reported in an olivine lamproite host at the type locality, Prairie Creek, Arkansas. Haggertyite occurs in the groundmass of a diamondiferous olivine lamproite pipe in the Ellendale field, and within the large zoned Walgidee Hills lamproite where it forms part of an extensive suite of Ba- and K-bearing titanate and Ti-rich silicate minerals. The haggertyite co-exists with chromian spinel, perovskite, and ilmenite in the Ellendale lamproite, and with priderite and perovskite and, in one locality, with priderite, jeppeite, ilmenite, and perovskite, in the Walgidee Hills lamproite. Unlike priderite and perovskite, which are common groundmass phases in the Ellendale olivine lamproites and present throughout the Walgidee Hills lamproite, haggertyite appears restricted in its occurrence and crystallization interval, with sparse ilmenite apparently mostly crystallizing as an alternative phase. In the Walgidee Hills lamproite the haggertyite-bearing assemblage is succeeded by the Ba-titanate assemblage priderite plus jeppeite in the evolved central part of the body.
The haggertyite in the main zone of the Walgidee Hills lamproite has an average composition of and is thus very similar to the original haggertyite described from xenoliths in the Prairie Creek lamproite apart from being poorer in Cr and Ni. Haggertyite in the groundmass of the Ellendale olivine lamproite and the central zone of the Walgidee Hills lamproite, in addition to variations in Mg and Cr, show significant variation in Ti and Fe contents and in calculated Fe3+ and Fe2+. A linear inverse relationship between Ti and Fe, and Ti and Fe3+, indicates that Fe3+ is accommodated by the coupled substitution Ti4+ + Fe2+ ⇆ Fe3+. A marked trend to higher Fe3+ in the haggertyite in Ellendale 9 olivine lamproite is ascribed to increasing oxidation during crystallization, with fO2 estimated from the olivine- spinel thermometer and oxygen barometer at Dlog FMQ = –1 to +3 at temperatures of 790–660 °C. The haggertyite in the central zone of the Walgidee Hills lamproite, in contrast, shows a marked trend to Fe2+ enrichment, which is associated with decreasing Fe in perovskite. This is inferred to indicate formation under more reducing conditions, but suficiently oxidized to permit Fe3+ in co-existing priderite and jeppeite.
Trace-element analysis by LA-ICP-MS shows the Walgidee Hills haggertyite contains minor amounts of Na, Si, Ca, V, Co, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, and Pb, and only traces of Al, P, Sc, Rb, REE, Hf, and Ta. Moreover, the haggertyite is preferentially enriched in certain lithophile (Ba, Sr), siderophile (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), and chalcophile (Zn, Pb) elements relative to co-existing priderite. Haggertyite crystallization appears to be a consequence not only of the very high Ba, Ti, and K contents of the lamproite, but of relatively high-Fe concentrations and low temperatures in evolved olivine lamproite magma with the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio determined by the prevailing The new data suggest that haggertyite might also be present but previously unrecognized in the evolved groundmass of other olivine lamproites. Haggertyite is one of an increasing number of new minerals in upper mantle rocks and volcanics derived from the upper mantle hosting large-ion-lithophile and high field strength cations.
The origin of stratabound deposits in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley Metallogenic Belt (MLYRB), Eastern China, is the subject of considerable debate. The Xinqiao Cu-Fe-Au deposit in the Tongling ore district is a typical stratabound ore body characterized by multi-stage magnetite. A total of six generations of magnetite have been identified. Mt1 is commonly replaced by porous Mt2, and both are commonly trapped in the core of Mt3, which is characterized by both core-rim textures and oscillatory zoning. Porous Mt4 commonly truncates the oscillatory zoning of Mt3, and Mt5 is characterized by 120° triple junction texture. Mt1 to Mt5 are commonly replaced by pyrite that coexists with quartz, whereas Mt6, with a fine-grained foliated and needle-like texture, commonly cuts the early pyrite as veins and is replaced by pyrite that coexists with calcite. The geochemistry of the magnetite suggests that they are hydrothermal in origin. The microporosity of Mt2 and Mt4 magnetite, their sharp contacts with Mt1 and Mt3, and lower trace-element contents (e.g., Si, Ca, Mg, and Ti) than Mt1 and Mt3 suggest that they formed via coupled dissolution and reprecipitation of the precursor Mt1 and Mt3 magnetite, respectively. This was likely caused by high-salinity fluids derived from intensive water-rock interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids associated with the Jitou stock and Late Permian metalliferous black shales. The 120° triple junction texture of Mt5 suggests it is the result of fluid-assisted recrystallization, whereas Mt6 formed by replacement of hematite as a result of fracturing. The geochemistry of the magnetite suggests that the temperature increased from Mt2 to Mt3 and implies that there were multiple pulses of fluids from a magmatic-hydrothermal system. Therefore, we propose that the Xinqiao stratiform mineralization was genetically associated with multiple influxes of magmatic hydrothermal fluids derived from the Early Cretaceous Jitou stock. This study demonstrates that detailed texture examination and in situ trace-elements analysis under robust geological and petrographic frameworks can effectively constrain the mineralization processes and ore genesis.
The diversity of lithologies is an important proxy of internal evolution in differentiated planets and asteroids. The major lithologies in Vesta, based on the howardite-eucrite-diogenite clan meteorites, include basalt, gabbro, noritic orthopyroxenite, orthopyroxenite, dunite, harzburgite, and dacite. No other lithology has been reported up to date. In this study, we report a new occurrence of corundum in eucrite meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 8647. Three-dimensional petrographic observations reveal that the corundum grain occurs as a mineral inclusion in a highly deformed pyroxene fragment. The texture indicates that the corundum is not a contaminant. The corundum-associated pyroxenes have Fe-Mn compositions consistent with typical pyroxenes from howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. We suggest that the corundum grain could be a xenocryst incorporated during the ascent of a basaltic magma. The results might indicate the presence of an Al-rich, Si-poor region, probably lithology in the interior of Vesta, implying that the evolution and internal structure should be much more complex than previously thought.