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Digital unterstützte Mikroskopie in der Praxis
Extracranielle Indikationen
Entstehung, Abwehr und Therapiemöglichkeiten

Abstract

Background

Due to the rarity of primary bone tumors, precise radiologic diagnosis often requires an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. In order to make the diagnosis more precise and to prevent the overlooking of potentially dangerous conditions, artificial intelligence has been continuously incorporated into medical practice in recent decades. This paper reviews some of the most promising systems developed, including those for diagnosis of primary and secondary bone tumors, breast, lung and colon neoplasms.

Conclusions

Although there is still a shortage of long-term studies confirming its benefits, there is probably a considerable potential for further development of computer-based expert systems aiming at a more efficient diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to assess the association between physical and biological dose normalized to volume of the metastatic tumor as well as clinical factors with local control in patients with brain metastases who underwent robotic stereotactic radiosurgery.

Patients and methods

A cohort of 69 patients consecutively treated with robotic radiosurgery between 2011 and 2016 was analyzed. The patients were treated with either single fraction radiosurgery or hypofractionated regimens. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated assuming alpha/beta value = 10 and both physical dose and BED were normalized to the tumor volume to allow dose-volume effect evaluation. Moreover, clinical and treatment-related variables were evaluated to asses association with local control.

Results

A total of 133 tumors were irradiated and their volumes ranged between 0.001 and 46.99 cm3. Presence of extracranial progression was associated with worse local control whereas higher total dose, BED10 > 59 Gy and single metastasis predicted statistically significantly better local outcome. BED10/cm3 > 36 Gy, and BED2 > 60 Gy negatively affected local control in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis performed on all these variables, presence of a single metastasis, BED10 > 59 Gy and extracranial progression retained their significance. Excluding a priori the BED2/ cm3 parameter resulted with a Cox model confirming significance of all remaining variables.

Conclusions

Hypofractionated treatment schemes have similar efficiency to single fraction treatment in terms of local control and the effect depends on BED irrespective of fractionation schedule. Effective control of extracranial sites of the disease is associated with higher probability of local control in the brain which in turn is consistently lower in patients with multiple lesions.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to determine the value of synchronous liver resection in patients with oligo-metastatic gastric cancer and the prognostic factors in these patients.

Patients and methods

We compared the results of 21 gastric patients with liver metastases and synchronous liver resection (LMR) to 21 propensity score-matched patients with gastric cancer and liver metastases in whom liver resection was not performed (LM0) and to a propensity score-matched control group of 21 patients without liver metastases and stage III and IV resectable gastric cancer (CG).

Results

The overall 5-year survival of LMR, LM0 and CG were 14.3%, 0%, and 19%, respectively (p = 0.002). Five-year survival was 47.5% for well-differentiated tumour compared to 0% in patients with moderate or poor tumour differentiation (p = 0.006). In addition, patients with R0 resection and TNM stage N0–1 had a significantly better survival compared to patients with TNM N stage N2–3 (5-year survival: 60% for N0–1 vs. 7.7% for N2–3; p = 0.007).

Conclusions

The results presented in the study support synchronous liver resections in gastric patients and provide additional criteria for patient selection.

Abstract

Background

Higher concentrations of seminal reactive oxygen species may be related to male infertility. Astaxanthin with high antioxidant activity can have an impact on the prevention and treatment of various health conditions, including cancer. However, efficacy studies on astaxanthin in patients with oligospermia with/without astheno- or teratozoospermia (O±A±T) have not yet been reported. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the oral intake of astaxanthin on semen parameters.

Patients and methods

In a randomized double-blind trial, 80 men with O±A±T were allocated to intervention with 16 mg astaxanthin orally daily or placebo. At baseline and after three months basic semen parameters, sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of spermatozoa and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) value were measured.

Results

Analysis of the results of 72 patients completing the study (37 in the study group, 35 in the placebo group) did not show any statistically significant change, in the astaxanthin group no improvements in the total number of spermatozoa, concentration of spermatozoa, total motility of spermatozoa, morphology of spermatozoa, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa or serum FSH were determined. In the placebo group, statistically significant changes in the total number and concentration of spermatozoa were determined.

Conclusions

The oral intake of astaxanthin did not affect any semen parameters in patients with O±A±T.

Abstract

Background

To assess different types of adnexal masses as identified by 3T MRI and to discuss the added value of diffusion techniques compared with conventional sequences.

Patients and methods

174 women age between 13 and 87 underwent an MRI examination of the pelvis for a period of three years. Patients were examined in two radiology departments – 135 of them on 3 Tesla MRI Siemens Verio and 39 on 3 Tesla MRI Philips Ingenia. At least one adnexal mass was diagnosed in 98 patients and they are subject to this study. Some of them were reviewed retrospectively. Data from patients’ history, physical examination and laboratory tests were reviewed as well.

Results

124 ovarian masses in 98 females’ group of average age 47.2 years were detected. Following the MRI criteria, 59.2% of the cases were considered benign, 30.6% malignant and 10.2% borderline. Out of all masses 58.1% were classified as cystic, 12.9% as solid and 29% as mixed. Оf histologically proven tumors 74.4% were benign and 25.6% were malignant. All of the malignant tumors had restricted diffusion. 64 out of all patients underwent contrast enhancement. (34 there were a subject of contraindications). 39 (61%) of the masses showed contrast enhancement.

Conclusions

Classifying adnexal masses is essential for the preoperative management of the patients. 3T MRI protocols, in particular diffusion techniques, increase significantly the accuracy of the diagnostic assessment.