During the last decade obesity has been continuously rising in adults in industrial countries. The increased occurrence of perinatal complications caused by maternal obesity poses a major challenge for obstetricians during pregnancy and childbirth. This study aims to examine the association between parity, pregnancy, birth risks, and body mass index (BMI) of women from Lower Saxony, Germany.
This retrospective cohort study examined pseudonymized data of a non-selected singleton cohort from Lower Saxony’s statewide quality assurance initiative. Mothers were categorized according to BMI as normal weight (18.5 to <25 kg/m2) or obese (≥30 kg/m2).
Most of the mothers in this study population were either in their first (33.9%) or second pregnancy (43.4%). The mean age of women giving birth for the first time was 28.3 years. Maternal age increased with increasing parity. The proportion of pregnant women with a BMI over 30 was 11% in primiparous women, 14.3% in second para, 17.3% in third para and 24.1% in fourth para or more women. Increasing parity was positively correlated with the incidence of classical diseases related to obesity, namely diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pregnancy-related hypertension and urinary protein excretion. An increased risk of primary or secondary cesarean section was observed in the obese women, particularly during the first deliveries.
There is a positive and significant correlation between parity and increased maternal BMI. The highest weight gain happens during the first pregnancy. The rate of operative deliveries and complications during delivery is increased in obese pregnant women.
To evaluate the relationship between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes. The secondary aim is to analyze the diagnostic value of hematologic parameters in COVID-19 complicated pregnancies.
The current study is conducted in a high volume tertiary obstetrics center burdened by COVID-19 pandemics, in Turkey. In this cohort study, perinatal outcomes and complete blood count indices performed at the time of admission of 39 pregnancies (Study group) complicated by COVID-19 were compared with 69 uncomplicated pregnancies (Control group).
There was no significant difference between the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies with COVID-19 compared to data of healthy pregnancies, except the increased C-section rate (p=0.026). Monocyte count, red cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were significantly increased (p<0.0001, p=0.009, p=0.043, p<0.0001, respectively) whereas the MPV and plateletcrit were significantly decreased (p=0.001, p=0.008) in pregnants with COVID-19. ROC analysis revealed that the optimal cut-off value for MLR was 0.354 which indicated 96.7% specificity and 59.5% sensitivity in diagnosis of pregnant women with COVID-19. A strong positive correlation was found between the MLR and the presence of cough symptom (r=41.4, p=<0.0001).
The study revealed that, pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 is not related with adverse perinatal outcomes. MLR may serve as a supportive diagnostic parameter together with the Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in assessment of COVID-19 in pregnant cohort.
COVID-19 pandemic is changing profoundly the obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) academic clinical learning environment in many different ways. Rapid developments affecting our learners, patients, faculty and staff require unprecedented collaboration and quick, deeply consequential readjustments, almost on a daily basis. We summarized here our experiences, opportunities, challenges and lessons learned and outline how to move forward. The COVID-19 pandemic taught us there is a clear need for collaboration in implementing the most current evidence-based medicine, rapidly assess and improve the everchanging healthcare environment by problem solving and “how to” instead of “should we” approach. In addition, as a community with very limited resources we have to rely heavily on internal expertise, ingenuity and innovation. The key points to succeed are efficient and timely communication, transparency in decision making and reengagement. As time continues to pass, it is certain that more lessons will emerge.
With clinical experience from previous coronavirus infections, public health measures and fear of infection may have negative psychological effects on pregnant women. This study aimed to compare the level of anxiety and depression in the same pregnant women before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The pregnant women continuing pregnancy who participated in the first study which was undertaken to clarify the factors associated with mental health of pregnant women before the COVID-19 pandemic, were included for the current study during the outbreak. Anxiety and depression symptoms of the same pregnant women were evaluated by using the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms II and Beck Anxiety Inventory twice before and during the pandemic.
A total of 63 pregnant women completed questionnaires. The mean age of the women and the mean gestational age was 30.35±5.27 years and 32.5±7 weeks, respectively. The mean total IDAS II score was found to increase from 184.78±49.67 (min: 109, max: 308) to 202.57±52.90 (min: 104, max: 329) before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. According to the BAI scores the number of patients without anxiety (from 10 to 6) and with mild anxiety (from 31 to 24) decreased and patients with moderate (from 20 to 25) and severe anxiety (from 2 to 8) increased after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that obesity and relationship with her husband are the best predictors of IDAS II scores.
This study indicated that COVID-19 outbreak affects the mental health of pregnant women negatively which leads to adverse birth outcomes. The level of anxiety and depression symptoms of pregnant women during the COVID-19 infection significantly increased. Healthcare professionals should establish comprehensive treatment plans for pregnant women who are highly vulnerable population to prevent mental trauma during the infectious disease outbreaks.