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Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was evaluation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) in the detection of active disease in the patients with suspected recurrence of the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

Patients and methods

18F-FDG PET/CT investigation was performed in 67 patients, investigated from 2010 to 2019. _ Follow up was performed from 6 to 116 months after surgery (median 16.5 months, x± SD = 29±28.9 months). Twenty five of 67 patients underwent 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scintigraphy, 11 underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with 99mTc-HYNIC TOC while 11 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy.

Results

From 67 patients, 35 (52.2%) had true positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings (TP). Average maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for all TP lesions was 5.01+3.6. In 25 (37.3%) patients findings were true negative (TN). Four (6%) patients had false positive (FP) findings while three (4.5%) were false negative (FN). Thus, sensitivity of the 18F-FDG PET/ CT was 92.11%, specificity 86.21%, positive predictive value 89.74%, negative predictive value 89.29% and accuracy 89.55%. In 27 patients (40%) 18F-FDG PET/CT finding influenced further management of the patient.

Conclusions

18F-FDG PET/CT has high accuracy in the detection of metastases/recurrences of MTC in patients after thyroidectomy as well as in evaluation and the appropriate choice of the therapy.

Abstract

Background

Due to the rarity of primary bone tumors, precise radiologic diagnosis often requires an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. In order to make the diagnosis more precise and to prevent the overlooking of potentially dangerous conditions, artificial intelligence has been continuously incorporated into medical practice in recent decades. This paper reviews some of the most promising systems developed, including those for diagnosis of primary and secondary bone tumors, breast, lung and colon neoplasms.

Conclusions

Although there is still a shortage of long-term studies confirming its benefits, there is probably a considerable potential for further development of computer-based expert systems aiming at a more efficient diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to assess the association between physical and biological dose normalized to volume of the metastatic tumor as well as clinical factors with local control in patients with brain metastases who underwent robotic stereotactic radiosurgery.

Patients and methods

A cohort of 69 patients consecutively treated with robotic radiosurgery between 2011 and 2016 was analyzed. The patients were treated with either single fraction radiosurgery or hypofractionated regimens. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated assuming alpha/beta value = 10 and both physical dose and BED were normalized to the tumor volume to allow dose-volume effect evaluation. Moreover, clinical and treatment-related variables were evaluated to asses association with local control.

Results

A total of 133 tumors were irradiated and their volumes ranged between 0.001 and 46.99 cm3. Presence of extracranial progression was associated with worse local control whereas higher total dose, BED10 > 59 Gy and single metastasis predicted statistically significantly better local outcome. BED10/cm3 > 36 Gy, and BED2 > 60 Gy negatively affected local control in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis performed on all these variables, presence of a single metastasis, BED10 > 59 Gy and extracranial progression retained their significance. Excluding a priori the BED2/ cm3 parameter resulted with a Cox model confirming significance of all remaining variables.

Conclusions

Hypofractionated treatment schemes have similar efficiency to single fraction treatment in terms of local control and the effect depends on BED irrespective of fractionation schedule. Effective control of extracranial sites of the disease is associated with higher probability of local control in the brain which in turn is consistently lower in patients with multiple lesions.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to determine the value of synchronous liver resection in patients with oligo-metastatic gastric cancer and the prognostic factors in these patients.

Patients and methods

We compared the results of 21 gastric patients with liver metastases and synchronous liver resection (LMR) to 21 propensity score-matched patients with gastric cancer and liver metastases in whom liver resection was not performed (LM0) and to a propensity score-matched control group of 21 patients without liver metastases and stage III and IV resectable gastric cancer (CG).

Results

The overall 5-year survival of LMR, LM0 and CG were 14.3%, 0%, and 19%, respectively (p = 0.002). Five-year survival was 47.5% for well-differentiated tumour compared to 0% in patients with moderate or poor tumour differentiation (p = 0.006). In addition, patients with R0 resection and TNM stage N0–1 had a significantly better survival compared to patients with TNM N stage N2–3 (5-year survival: 60% for N0–1 vs. 7.7% for N2–3; p = 0.007).

Conclusions

The results presented in the study support synchronous liver resections in gastric patients and provide additional criteria for patient selection.

Abstract

Background

Higher concentrations of seminal reactive oxygen species may be related to male infertility. Astaxanthin with high antioxidant activity can have an impact on the prevention and treatment of various health conditions, including cancer. However, efficacy studies on astaxanthin in patients with oligospermia with/without astheno- or teratozoospermia (O±A±T) have not yet been reported. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the oral intake of astaxanthin on semen parameters.

Patients and methods

In a randomized double-blind trial, 80 men with O±A±T were allocated to intervention with 16 mg astaxanthin orally daily or placebo. At baseline and after three months basic semen parameters, sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of spermatozoa and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) value were measured.

Results

Analysis of the results of 72 patients completing the study (37 in the study group, 35 in the placebo group) did not show any statistically significant change, in the astaxanthin group no improvements in the total number of spermatozoa, concentration of spermatozoa, total motility of spermatozoa, morphology of spermatozoa, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa or serum FSH were determined. In the placebo group, statistically significant changes in the total number and concentration of spermatozoa were determined.

Conclusions

The oral intake of astaxanthin did not affect any semen parameters in patients with O±A±T.

Abstract

Background

To assess different types of adnexal masses as identified by 3T MRI and to discuss the added value of diffusion techniques compared with conventional sequences.

Patients and methods

174 women age between 13 and 87 underwent an MRI examination of the pelvis for a period of three years. Patients were examined in two radiology departments – 135 of them on 3 Tesla MRI Siemens Verio and 39 on 3 Tesla MRI Philips Ingenia. At least one adnexal mass was diagnosed in 98 patients and they are subject to this study. Some of them were reviewed retrospectively. Data from patients’ history, physical examination and laboratory tests were reviewed as well.

Results

124 ovarian masses in 98 females’ group of average age 47.2 years were detected. Following the MRI criteria, 59.2% of the cases were considered benign, 30.6% malignant and 10.2% borderline. Out of all masses 58.1% were classified as cystic, 12.9% as solid and 29% as mixed. Оf histologically proven tumors 74.4% were benign and 25.6% were malignant. All of the malignant tumors had restricted diffusion. 64 out of all patients underwent contrast enhancement. (34 there were a subject of contraindications). 39 (61%) of the masses showed contrast enhancement.

Conclusions

Classifying adnexal masses is essential for the preoperative management of the patients. 3T MRI protocols, in particular diffusion techniques, increase significantly the accuracy of the diagnostic assessment.

Abstract

Background

Asbestos exposure is associated with the development of pleural plaques as well as malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos fibres activate macrophages, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The expression of IL-1β may be influenced by genetic variability of IL1B gene or regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs). This study investigated the effect of polymorphisms in IL1B and MIR146A genes on the risk of developing pleural plaques and MM.

Subjects and methods

In total, 394 patients with pleural plaques, 277 patients with MM, and 175 healthy control subjects were genotyped for IL1B and MIR146A polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used in statistical analysis.

Results

We found no association between MIR146A and IL1B genotypes, and the risk of pleural plaques. MIR146A rs2910164 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of MM (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13–0.73, p = 0.008). Carriers of two polymorphic alleles had a lower risk of developing MM, even after adjustment for gender and age (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14–0.85, p = 0.020). Among patients with known asbestos exposure, carriers of at least one polymorphic IL1B rs1143623 allele also had a lower risk of MM in multivariable analysis (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28–0.92, p = 0.025). The interaction between IL1B rs1143623 and IL1B rs1071676 was significantly associated with an increased risk of MM (p = 0.050).

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that genetic variability of inflammatory mediator IL-1β could contribute to the risk of developing MM, but not pleural plaques.

Abstract

Background

Survival of children with cancer in Eastern and Central Europe is 10–20% lower than in high income European countries. We evaluated outcome of children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in Slovenia, Croatia, Slovakia and in Romania.

Patients and methods

We retrospectively analysed event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients treated in Slovenia and Croatia. Slovakia included patients from two centers, representing half of expected cases. Romania included patients from single institution, representing only 10% of expected patients. Joint database for analysis was established.

Results

One hundred seventy-eight children and adolescent with RMS diagnosed from January 2000 to December 2015 were included. Mean patient age at diagnosis was 7.7 years, one third was older than 10 years. Twenty-five percent had alveolar histology and 72% unfavorable location. Higher than expected proportion of patients had nodal involvement (24%) or metastatic disease (27%). All patients received systemic chemotherapy, 57% had radiotherapy and 63% surgery as local control. Kaplan- Meier estimates for 5-year EFS and OS were 50.7% and 59.6%, respectively. Five-year OS for patients with localised disease was 72% compared to 24% for metastatic disease.

Conclusions

Children with RMS treated in Eastern and Central Europe have inferior outcome compared to their counterparts treated in high income European countries. Active participation of low health expenditures average rates (LHEAR) countries in international clinical trials may improve outcome of paediatric oncology patients.

Abstract

Background

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) presents as locally advanced disease in a majority of patients and is prone to relapse despite aggressive treatment. Since immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have shown clinically significant efficacy in patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC (R/M HNSCC), a plethora of trials are investigating their role in earlier stages of disease. At the same time, preclinical data showed the synergistic role of concurrently administered radiotherapy and ICIs (immunoradiotherapy) and explained several mechanisms behind it. Therefore, this approach is prospectively tested in a neoadjuvant, definitive, or adjuvant setting in non-R/M HNSCC patients. Due to the intricate relationship between host, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, each of these approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. In this narrative review we present the biological background of immunoradiotherapy, as well as a rationale for, and possible flaws of, each treatment approach, and provide readers with a critical summary of completed and ongoing trials.

Conclusions

While immunotherapy with ICIs has already become a standard part of treatment in patients with R/M HNSCC, its efficacy in a non-R/M HNSCC setting is still the subject of extensive clinical testing. Irradiation can overcome some of the cancer’s immune evasive manoeuvres and can lead to a synergistic effect with ICIs, with possible additional benefits of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of this combination is not robust and details in trial design and treatment delivery seem to be of unprecedented importance.