Chronically ill young people must transition to the adult health care service after their 18th birthday. The transition from child centred paediatric care to the adult health care service is not simply limited to the change from familiar structures to something unknown, but includes the entire process of growing up, of individuals becoming independent from their parents and taking responsibility for their own disease management. Young people are at particular risk of losing the connection to medical care during this phase and the transition of young people with chronic conditions is associated with a high risk of declining adherence and worsening health status. Studies suggest that transition programs might be helpful, yet there is no evidence as to whether risks can be reduced or which intervention components are particularly conducive to better outcome. This study aimed to identify transition-specific interventions and evaluate their effect on the improvement of psychosocial parameters, such as health related quality of life and adherence of patients. A systematic literature review was conducted. Electronic databases (Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed, Web of Science) were searched by two independent reviewers for intervention studies aiming to improve transition. Grey literature was also searched. Studies were included if they evaluated transition-specific interventions aiming to improve psychosocial or adherence parameters of participants aged 12 years and older suffering from a chronic condition. Both controlled trials and studies with measurements before an after the intervention were included. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of evidence. The inclusion criteria was met by forty studies. Patients suffered from different chronic conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Transition interventions used several program components, such as transition coordinators, patient education programs or web-based interventions. Outcomes included quality of life, transition-specific knowledge, adherence and loss to follow up. Thirty-eight studies showed beneficial effects in the intervention group, respectively after intervention. The overall study quality was low. A large number of studies evaluating transition-specific interventions was included. Transition-specific interventions seem to have beneficial effects on psychosocial outcomes and adherence. The promotion of health literacy, appointment arrangement service and the use of technical elements (websites, SMS) seem to be particularly helpful in the transition process. As the patient population was diverse, the results can be transferred to other diseases. Even though the overall study quality was poor, it is possible to draw some conclusions. Future studies should aim to include large numbers of patients over extended periods of time in order to assess long-term outcomes.
The present is the future of the past, and the past of the future. This journal as well as this paper endeavour to document the lives and practices of psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals for the future mental health community and to help the clinicians of the future to understand the history and practice of psychiatry and mental health care in 2019/20. We, therefore, report the current days in the lives of psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals.
Material and Methods
To obtain reports of days in the lives of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, we published the request on eight occasions from May 2019 to May 2020. We invited the prospective respondents/participants to send a relevant report of their psychiatric practice in a day with a maximum word count of 750 words.
We received 20 reports of variable lengths from 10 countries from six continents, including from psychiatrists, psychiatrists in training, clinical psychologists and from medical students about their psychiatric training. The reports revealed a wide and highly variable range of psychiatric and mental health practices, experiences and expectations. Last but not least, the reports we received were informative and provided much information to reflect on.
There is a common strong commitment to support patients with mental health problems, but the ways this is achieved are so diverse that generalisations about a typical common practice seem impossible. Future studies should focus more systematically on the procedures and practices applied in helping patients with mental health problems in different countries and communities. This knowledge might eventually help identify the procedures and services that are most efficient and helpful in various clinical contexts.
Media reporting has an influential role in panic buying (PB). We aimed to evaluate the media portrayal of PB during this COVID-19 pandemic.
We searched, collected, and analysed the news reports from the English media discussing the PB events. The search was done between 23 and 30 May 2020.
A total of 525 news reports were analysed. Approximately half (49.3%) discussed the government action to handle the situation, 36.4% discussed the expert opinion regarding PB, 20.6% discussed the psychology of PB, 21.5% discussed the rumours, and 18.5% suggested remedial measures. Concerning the negative aspects, 96.6% of the titles mentioned panic buying, 75.4% mentioned the cause, and 62.3% mentioned the photos of empty shelves. The media in low–middle-income countries are 1.5 times more likely to include expert opinion (p = 0.03), 2.1 times more likely to discuss rumours regarding PB (p = 0.001), almost thrice more likely to report the cause of PB (p = 0.001), and thrice more likely to mention its impact (p = 0.001).
Media has been portraying more negative aspects of PB. Further, there are variations in reporting patterns between high-income and low–middle-income countries.
A quarter of a century has passed since the importance of transition from paediatric to adult care for chronically ill adolescents was highlighted by the American Society of Adolescent Health and Medicine. Despite discussions, the development of generic guidelines and some cohorting of age groups in paediatric speciality care, adolescents continue, unacceptably, to fall through the care gaps with negative clinical outcomes. Government bodies and international organisations have developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for specific chronic physical illness although it remains unclear as to what extent these discuss transition from paediatric to adult care. This study systematically reviewed scientific and grey literature to determine how effectively transition has been incorporated into chronic illness specific CPGs.
Five bibliographical databases; Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science plus an extensive grey literature search from the internet were used to identify published guidelines between 2008 and 2018 using key words adolescents, transition, guidelines, together with the names of over 20 chronic physical illnesses which require specialist to specialist care after transitioning from paediatric care. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. In addition a measure of trustworthiness for CPGs was included. Guidelines were benchmarked against a published set of Australian transition principles embodying the comprehensive recommendations from National Institute for health and Care Excellence (NICE) transition guidelines discussing key transition aspects on: a systematic and formal transition process; early preparation; transition coordinators, good communication and collaboration between health professionals; individualised transition plan, enhancing self-management and active follow up after transition.
Initially, 1055 articles were identified from the literature searches. Eight hundred and sixty eight articles were selected for title and abstract review. One hundred and seventy eight articles were included for full text review. Ultimately, 25 trustworthy CPGs were identified and included across 14 chronic physical illnesses. Five articles exclusively discussed illness specific transition recommendations and two included all the seven key transition principles. Three provided a minimal discussion of transition to adult care due to lack of high level evidence. Follow up and evaluation was the least addressed principle with recommendations in only seven CPGs.
A limited number of chronic physical illnesses have illness specific CPGs that address transition from paediatric to adult care. The CPGs’ content emphasises the need for empirical data in order to develop quality transition recommendations for adolescents with chronic physical illness to ensure long term engagement and retention within health services.
Youth with medical complexity (YMC) are a small subset of youth who have a combination of severe functional limitations and extensive health service use. As these youth become adults, they are required to transition to adult health, education, and social services. The transition to adult services is especially difficult for YMC due to the sheer number of services that they access. Service disruptions can have profound impacts on YMC and their families, potentially leading to an unsuccessful transition to adulthood. This meta-ethnography aims to synthesize qualitative literature exploring how YMC and their families experience the transition to adulthood and transfer to adult services. An in-depth understanding of youth and family experiences can inform interventions and policies to optimize supports and services to address the needs of this population at risk for unsuccessful transition to adulthood. Using Noblit and Hare’s approach to meta-ethnography, a comprehensive search of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Index, and Sociological Abstracts databases, supplemented by hand searching, was conducted to identify relevant studies. Included studies focused on the transition to adulthood or transfer to adult services for YMC, contained a qualitative research component, and had direct quotes from youth or family participants. Studies were critically appraised, and data were analyzed using meta-ethnographic methods of reciprocal translation and line of argument synthesis. Conceptual data from ten studies were synthesized into six overarching constructs: (1) the nature and process of transition, (2) changing relationships, (3) goals and expectations, (4) actions related to transition, (5) making sense of transition, and (6) contextual factors impacting transition. A conceptual model was developed that explains that youth and families experience dynamic interactions between their goals, actions, and relationships, which are bounded and influenced by the nature, process, and context of transition. Despite the tremendous barriers faced during transition, YMC and their families often demonstrate incredible resilience, perseverance, and resourcefulness in the pursuit of their goals. Implications for how the conceptual model can inform practice, policy, and research are shared. These implications include the need to address emotional needs of youth and families, support families in realizing their visions for the future, promote collaboration among stakeholders, and develop policies to incentivize and support providers in implementing current transition guidelines.
Depression is the second major cause of disability and is a principal source of disease burden worldwide which is quite common among international students.
This study explored the depression and its associated factors among international students of a private university in Bangladesh.
This cross-sectional study was conducted among 149 international students at a private university in Dhaka, Bangladesh using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D 10) Scale.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms among international students was 47.7%. Students’ age, marital status, satisfaction with living conditions and problems concerning studies, food, homesickness, finances, accommodation, and health were significantly associated with depression.
This study concluded that there is an unmet need for psychological support for international students studying in Bangladesh. Appropriate support services should be directed to them to help and to overcome the challenges they face.
Depression is frequently comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substantially influences its severity, course and outcomes. Published studies linking war-related paediatric PTSD and Major depressive disorder (MDD) were mainly based on cross-sectional studies.
To prospectively examine the role of PTSD and other risk/protective factors in the development of depression among adolescents with war-related trauma.
A longitudinal study of 160 adolescents aged 15–17 years with war-related trauma and displacement due to war in Eastern Ukraine was performed. Of the 160 adolescents, N = 86 met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-4) criteria for PTSD. All adolescents underwent comprehensive psychiatric assessments that included Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) administered to both parents and children. Traumatic exposure was assessed using the modified Traumatic Events Screening Inventory for children (TESI-C). PTSD and MDD were assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA) and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), and diagnosed using DSM-4 criteria. Follow-up and repeated measurements occurred at 6 and 12 months. During the study, adolescents requiring clinical care were referred for best available care in the community.
Among 92.6% of study completers, 26/79 youth with PTSD developed MDD (32.9%), compared to 6/70 without PTSD (8.5%): relative risk (RR) = 3.83 (95% CI 1.67–8.78), p = 0.0014; Number needed to harm (NNTH) = 4.108 (8.53–2.7). Using logistic regression, variables of school attendance, ‘secondary’ traumatic exposure, and treatment with Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) were significantly correlated with the incidence of new-onset depression among adolescents with PTSD.
War-related trauma with subsequent PTSD appears to be a significant risk factor for the later development of depression in adolescents. The role of PTSD as a moderator of depression merits further investigation in larger scale longitudinal studies in diverse populations.
Across four decades of war and violence in Iraq between 1981 and 2003, I undertook my medical training in psychiatry. I chose this specialty in response to the suffering of the bereaved women in Iraq across these rough times. This article details a personal history of my journey specialising in psychiatry through this period in Iraq and the experience of being the first female psychiatrist who accomplished her training through the Iraqi Board of Psychiatry in a programme established in 1988. I reflect on how psychiatry was not the specialisation of choice for female doctors, which created a shortage in the field. This most acutely impacted female trauma victims, who preferred to be treated by female psychiatrists. From the 1950s to 1988, the ratio of psychiatrists in the country increased from 0.2 to 0.5 per 100,000 population. However, this saw a dramatic decrease because of two waves of migration in 1991 and 2003, as of 1998, the ratio of psychiatrists in the country had dropped to 0.1 per 100,000 of the population. The pursuit and development of this specialisation were disrupted by war, invasion and comprehensive sanctions. I also consider the socio-economic impact of these aforementioned events on society as a whole and, in particular, on the medical profession. This account tells the story of my lived experience during those difficult times and my efforts to become an example of a new generation of women psychiatrists.
The aim of this scoping review is to map the current landscape of published research and perspectives on physician suicide. Findings could serve as a roadmap for further investigations and potentially inform efforts to prevent physician suicide.
Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for English-language publications from August 21, 2017 through April 28, 2018. Inclusion criteria were a primary outcome or thesis focused on suicide (including suicide completion, attempts, and thoughts or ideation) among medical students, postgraduate trainees, or attending physicians. Opinion articles were included. Studies that were non-English or those that only mentioned physician burnout, mental health, or substance use disorders were excluded. Data extraction was performed by two authors.
The search yielded 1,596 articles, of which 347 articles passed to the full-text review round. The oldest article was an editorial from 1903; 210 (60.3%) articles have been published from 2000 to present. Authors originated from 37 countries, and 143 (41.2%) were opinion articles. The most discussed were suicide risk factors and culture of practice issues, while the least discussed themes included public health and postvention.
Consistency and reliability of data and information about physician suicides could be improved. Data limitations partly contribute to these issues. Also, various suicide risk factors for physicians have been explored, and several remain poorly understood. Based on this scoping review, a public health approach, including surveillance and early warning systems, investigations of sentinel cases, and postvention may be impactful next steps in preventing physician deaths by suicide.
To conduct a pilot study on the lived experiences of people affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on affected people.
This mixed methods study used random and snowball techniques to recruit 91 respondents (age range 18–58 years) from 14 countries. Accessing patients with COVID-19 was restricted because of the nature of the disease and the treatment they were receiving which limited their access to being selected for our pilot study. Therefore, our respondents were members of the general population who were directly or indirectly affected by the pandemic. Respondents completed online surveys consisting of the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and open-ended questions. Collected data were subjected to IBM SPSS statistics software (v. 22.0) and thematic analysis.
Both quantitative and qualitative instruments reported very high feasibility, which is suggestive of an excellent feasibility of our mixed methods design. Second, we identified financial and time resources as major barriers to the recruitment process, and how to avert these in the main study was discussed. Third, COVID-19 pandemic had more anxious than depressive impacts on our respondents. We also found that more than half (58, 63.7%) of the total respondents showed high knowledge level of COVID-19, and the major sources from which they gained knowledge were television, radio, and online academic papers. Our qualitative insight showed five themes from the lived experiences of respondents from the COVID-19 pandemic. These themes were; changes in lifestyles, disruption of schooling activities, impact on options for health services, disruption of works and economy, and anxious and worrisome impacts, in that order.
Main study is feasible with minor addition required on our protocol. Given other findings, we recommend the need for adaptive coping skill training, and appropriate information sharing during pandemics. There is also the need for psychosocial preparation due to the uncertainty of pandemics. In addition, averting the likely adverse economic impacts from pandemics should be of concern to governments and other stakeholders during pandemics. Finally, we recommend that governments and other stakeholders should be cautious about the likelihood of limited health service options for the general public during pandemics.