The article presents a method of calibration of material parameters of a numerical model based on a genetic algorithm, which allows to match the calculation results with measurements from the geotechnical monitoring network. This method can be used for the maintenance of objects managed by the observation method, which requires continuous monitoring and design alterations. The correctness of the calibration method has been verified on the basis of artificially generated data in order to eliminate inaccuracies related to approximations resulting from the numerical model generation. Using the example of the tailing dam model the quality of prediction of the selected measurement points was verified. Moreover, changes of factor of safety values, which is an important indicator for designing this type of construction, were analyzed. It was decided to exploit the case of dam of reservoir, which is under continuous construction, that is dam height is increasing constantly, because in this situation the use of the observation method is relevant.
Brakes are one of the most important components of vehicle. The brake system must be reliable and display unchanging action throughout its use, as it guards the health and life of many people. Properly matched friction pair, a disc and brake pad (in disc brakes), have a great impact on these factors. In most cases, the disc is made of grey cast iron. The brake pads are far more complex components. New technologies make it possible to develop materials with various compositions and different proportions, and connect them permanently in fully controllable processes. This elaboration shows that all these factors have a greater or lesser impact on the coefficient of friction, resistance to friction wear and high temperature, and brake pad’s operating life. This review collects the most important, the most interesting, and the most unconventional materials used in production of brake pads, and characterizes their impact on the tribological properties of pads.
The meso numerical simulation has become an important method to study the characteristics of materials; however, the key to its further application is determining the parameters of meso-constitutive model. Considering that the meso-scale parameters of materials are hard to measure, this paper took into account the aggregate size effect and proposed a meso-parameter identification method by combining random aggregate numerical simulation and genetic algorithm. First, a random aggregate model of concrete was established, and its meso-model parameters were analyzed. The Morris method was used to analyze the sensitivity of meso-component parameters to the macro-responses, and results showed that the elastic modulus of mortar matrix, interface and large aggregates had a great effect on the peak strain and that the elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and tensile strength of interface and mortar matrix, as well as the Poisson’s ratio of large aggregates and the elastic modulus of small aggregates all had an effect on the peak stress, among which the interface tensile strength produced the greatest effect. Second, a parametric inversion and optimization function was established. The uniaxial compression numerical simulation test and genetic algorithm were combined to invert the meso-parameters, and results showed that compared with the single-aggregate parameter inversion curve, the multi-aggregate inversion stress-strain curve was much closer to the measured curve. That was because the aggregates of small size had lower elastic modulus, easing the stress concentration at the interface between aggregates and cement stone, and delaying the formation and growth of cracks.
The rheology of cement paste under vibration follows the transformation from Bingham model to Hershel-Bulkly model to Power-Law model. Most of the existing research is obtained through a large number of experiments in the data fitting process, and cannot express the time-varying characteristics of viscosity. Furthermore, thixotropy of cement paste is based on static experiment and cannot be applied under vibration. In this paper a shear-vibration equivalent theory is proposed, which consider the effect of vibration is the same as the shear effect on the viscosity change of cement paste. Combining vibrational shear equivalent theory and HI theory, the rheological changes of cement paste under vibration are obtained through numerical simulation. This theory has been verified by a series of experiments with numerical simulations, and can be used to study the rheology of concrete under vibration.
The Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3 (PNN-PZT) piezoelectric ceramics with CuO and LiBiO2 doping were successfully fabricated by the low-temperature solid-state reaction to effectively restrain the PbO volatilization. The microstructure and electrical properties of the PNN-PZT ceramics were characterized. The experimental results reveal that the PNN-PZT ceramics are composed of a pure perovskite structure in which the rhombohedral and tetragonal phases coexist. Meanwhile, the good electric properties, including low dielectric loss, outstanding diffusion phase transition and palpable dielectric relaxation, are exhibited in PNN-PZT ceramics with 0.2 wt.% CuO and 1 wt.% LiBiO2 addition. This piezoceramic composition possibly provides a reference for the application of multi-layer piezoelectric actuators.