This paper focuses on the setup of axial bearing capacity of open ended tubular steel piles that are used for offshore foundation systems such as those of wind turbines. A comparative evaluation of the most commonly used models for setup prediction shows an upper estimate bound and a lower estimate bound, which correspond approximately to a setup rate of 60% increase per log cycle of time and 20% increase per log cycle of time, respectively. This finding is validated with the results of case histories reported in literature, which show that the setup values of most case histories considered lie in the best estimate zone between the upper estimate zone and the lower estimate zone. The analysis results show a minimum setup factor of approximately 1.5 for 100 days following end of driving of open-ended tubular steel pile driven in sand.
This paper presents a laboratory study of the combined effect of the water content and fines content on the mechanical behaviour of Chlef sand in a medium dense state (RD = 65%) and dense state (RD = 80%). Several mechanical parameters were evaluated such as shear strength, cohesion and friction angle at different water content w = 0, 1, 2 and 3% and different fines content Fc = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%. The test results showed that the shear strength of Chlef sand decrease with the increase fines content Fc = 0 to 40%, our tests result also showed that the water content has a significant influence on the shear strength which decreases with the increase in the water content w = 0 to 3%. The fines content and the water content have a significant influence on the mechanical parameters c and φ. Cohesion increases with the percentage of fines and decreases with the increase of the water content while the friction angle decreases with the increase the fines content and the water content.
4,4′-(4,4′-isopropylidenediphenoxy)bis(phthalic anhydride) (BPADA) was reacted with three structurally different diamines to produce poly(amic acid)s, which were then imidized to produce colorless and transparent polyimide (CPI) films through stepwise thermal cyclization. The three amines used to synthesize CPI based on BPADA are: bis(3-aminophenyl)sulfone (APS), p-xylyenediamine (p-XDA), and bis[4-(3-aminophenoxy)-phenyl] sulfone (m-BAPS). The obtained CPI films were almost colorless and exhibited excellent optical transparencies. The solubility of the CPI films in various solvents was investigated, and all the CPI films were found to be soluble in common solvents such as chloroform, dichloromethane, N,N’-dimethyl acetamide, and pyridine. The thermo-optical properties and oxygen transmission rates (O2TRs) of the CPI films were examined for various biaxial stretching ratios in the range of 100–150%, and their properties were compared. When the stretching ratio changed from 100 to 150%, the glass transition temperature and yellow index did not show any significant change; however, the O2TR decreased for all CPI films.
Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica (OF) was employed to reduce salt solutions of silver nitrate, gold chloride and silver nitrate/gold chloride to OFAgNPs, OFAuNPs, and OFAg-AuNPs respectively. Characterization of the particles was carried out using different standard methods, and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed silver, gold and silver-gold alloys nanoparticles with surface plasmon resonance at 462, 545 and 539 nm, respectively. The significant FTIR peaks: OFAgNPs (3300 and 1635 cm−1), OFAuNPs (3288 and 1635 cm−1) and OFAg-AuNPs (3307 and 1637 cm−1) for synthesized nanoparticles pointed to protein as both capping and stabilizing agent. Generally, particles were spherical with size range of 27-38 nm, 11-28 nm and 15-54 nm for silver, gold and silver-gold alloys nanoparticles respectively. OFAgNPs gave highest antagonistic effects against tested bacteria (35-82%), followed by OFAg-AuNPs (12-75%) and AuNPs (11-48%). The fungal inhibition of 44-70% for OFAgNPs, 42-79% for OFAuNPs and 52-92% for OFAg-AuNPs were obtained. DPPH scavenging activities were obtained as follows: OFAgNPs (52.25–57.50%), OFAuNPs (37.07-59.07%) and OFAg-AuNPs (37.07-63.00%) at tested concentrations of 20–100 µg/ml, which were dose-dependent in comparison with standard BHA (42.57–91.27%) and ascorbic acid (52.13–84.20%). The bleaching inhibition assay of ABTS showed activities of 41.33–61.83% (OFAgNPs), 27.37-50.60% (OFAuNPs) and 32.83-44.33% (OFAg-AuNPs). The synthesized nanoparticles demonstrated an excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The current study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first time to use Opuntia ficus-indica to synthesize silver, gold and silver-gold alloys nanoparticles.
Bulk metallic glass of Cu60Zr20Ti20 composition has been synthesized by copper mold casting. Slices of the as-cast glass has been subjected to severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion for different whole turns. The microstructure and the thermal behavior of the deformed disks have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. It was confirmed that the initial compression preceding the high pressure torsion induces crystallized structure, which shows only minor further changes upon the severe plastic shear deformation achieved by twisting the sample. The X-ray line profiles have been evaluated by the Convolutional Whole Profile Fitting algorithm in order to determine the evolution of the microstructural parameters, such as the median and variance of the crystallite size distribution, average crystallite size and dislocation density as a function of the number of revolutions. Hardness measurements by nanoindentation have also been carried out on the as-cast alloys and the deformed disks.
Recent developments in the field of carbon nanotube (CNT) have attracted attentions on a new development of aluminum matrix composite (AMC). Homogenous dispersion and interfacial bonding of CNT/metal matrix are the two main problems yet to have sound solutions. In general, to ensure uniform dispersion, the overall process can be divided into three steps: preprocessing, mixing and post processing. This paper summarizes previous works on solid and liquid processing techniques which some are more successful than others by looking at the improvement of the composite tensile strengths. On the other hand the interfacial bonding depends on the existance of Al4C3 phase and physical conditions of CNT. Both elements must be controlled for the optimized results. The review presented here would be used as references in the future works to fabricate higher strength CNT/aluminum composites.
The article presents problem of non-uniform foundation of structures in weak wet subsoil. The problem is illustrated with the case study of two-chamber-reinforced concrete water tank constructed in 1920s of 20th century, which cracked during construction. Under part of foundation, where the peat was found, the concrete piles were introduced.
The results of five-year measurement of crack widths with crack gauges and geodesic measurements of vertical displacement of tank were presented. These results indicate that the tank is not stable and part of broken tank supported on piles is movable.
On the basis of the presented data, the general conclusions concerning the non-uniform founding of tanks are formulated.
Water seepage is one of the most important features of embankment dams. To prevent and reduce seepage, it is necessary to seal the dam. Plastic concrete cutoff walls are one of the most efficient methods in waterproofing the foundation of embankment dams on permeable alluvial substrates. Sufficient resistance to loads, low permeability to maintain dam sealing, high ductility compatible with the foundation and deformation under load without cracking are the main requirements in plastic concrete cutoff walls. In this paper, the construction and implementation of the cutoff wall of Karkheh Dam, which is one the world’s largest water sealing projects, was studied. In addition, a numerical model using Seep-3D software was developed to evaluate the efficiency of the cut-off wall to decrease the seepage over the dam’s foundation. The numerical results validated by instrumentation statistics resulted from 17-years dam operation. According to the results, after the drainage of the reservoir, the cutoff wall optimally reduced the hydraulic gradient by 0.08 from 2.35 and the water leakage by 3.1 m/s from 18.3 m/s.
This paper presents an enhanced constitutive model integrating deviatoric hardening with a modified yield surface for overconsolidated clayey soils in a general framework of Cam-clay type models. Its performance was assessed with the simulation of drained and undrained triaxial tests on three clays at different consolidation states in comparison to two critical state models. The proposed model satisfactorily estimates the shear resistance, while capturing the smooth nonlinearity of the soil response.
Shear triaxial tests at constant mean pressure were performed on an overconsolidated marl to study the shear response. Their simulation attests the importance of deviatoric hardening integration.
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the discharge flow pressure in the vertical silo and the hopper due to the use of insert (top cone with trunk cone bottom). Using the Insert inside the silos is one of the proposed solutions to avoid the problems of having funnel flow pattern, which has a significant effect on the distribution of flow pressure exerted on the silo wall and the hopper. The experiments were performed on a metal cylinder prototype; corn was used as a granular material, and the wall and hopper pressure distribution was measured by a special pressure transducer. The experiments revealed an important result in the flow pressure due to the change in the location of the insert. The experiments were conducted in Damascus University laboratories.