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Abstract

The presented chapter deals with technological aspects concerning industrial production of major inorganic chemicals such as sulfuric, nitric and phosphorous acids. The idea was to highlight the main assumptions related to their fabrication as well as to point out novel aspects and perspectives concerning their industry. The main attention will be paid to raw materials and their transformation in order to obtain indirect precursors of inorganic acids - acid anhydrides. Characteristics of the individual stages of synthesis, with a special regard to the process conditions will be also of key importance. The environmental impact of this particular technology will be raised and discussed. Finally, the review over recently published scientific papers, concerning innovative solutions in inorganic acids production, will be performed.

Abstract

At present, Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most used biodegradable polyesters. The good properties and its biodegradability make that PLA can replace the fossil fuel derived polymers in different applications. PLA can be synthesized by using different methodologies. Among them, the most widely used forms on an industrial scale are the direct polycondensation of Lactic acid and the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic Lactide. The final properties of the obtained PLA are dependent on the used stereoisomers of the raw materials (Lactic acid and/or Lactide) and the conditions employed to polymerize them. Therefore, the comprehension of the synthetic mechanism of PLA is crucial to control the stereoregularity of PLA, which in turn results in an improvement of the polymer properties. So, distinct mechanisms for the synthesis of PLA by ring-opening polymerization using different catalysts systems (organometallic catalysts, cationic catalyst, organic catalyst, bifunctional catalysts) are examined in this review.