X-rays application for radiation processing was introduced to the industrial practice, and in some circumstances is found to be more economically competitive, and offer more flexibility than gamma sources. Recent progress in high-power accelerators development gives opportunity to construct and apply reliable high-power electron beam to X-rays converters for the industrial application. The efficiency of the conversion process depends mainly on electron energy and atomic number of the target material, as it was determined in theoretical predictions and confirmed experimentally. However, the lower price of low-energy direct accelerators and their higher electrical efficiency may also have certain influence on process economy. There are number of auxiliary parameters that can effectively change the economical results of the process. The most important ones are as follows: average beam power level, spare part cost, and optimal shape of electron beam and electron beam utilization efficiency. All these parameters and related expenses may affect the unit cost of radiation facility operation and have a significant influence on X-ray process economy. The optimization of X-rays converter construction is also important, but it does not depend on the type of accelerator. The article discusses the economy of radiation processing with high-intensity of X-rays stream emitted by conversion of electron beams accelerated in direct accelerator (electron energy 2.5 MeV) and resonant accelerators (electron energy 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV). The evaluation and comparison of the costs of alternative technical solutions were included to estimate the unit cost of X-rays facility operation for average beam power 100 kW.
The possibility of preparing fission chambers for the experimental determination of subcriticality without time-consuming corrections has been presented. The reactor detectors set consists of monoisotopic chambers. Each chamber is intended for a specific position in the system. Individual weights, rated a priori for all detectors in their positions, allow for quick calculation of whole system subcriticality. The inconveniences related to the spatial effect are minimized. This is achieved by computational simulation of the area method results, for each detector position and all possible fissionable and fissile nuclides. Next, one nuclide is selected, specific for the given position, presenting the smallest difference from the MCNP KCODE precisely estimated kkcode. The case study is made using the model of VENUS-F core.
This paper presents the results of long-term investigations of 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in drinking water in the city of Zagreb for the period 1987–2018. The highest activity concentrations of both radio-nuclides were measured in 1987, decreasing exponentially ever since, while 134Cs in several subsequent years fell under the detection limit. After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011, the presence of 134Cs in drinking water was detected again. The environmental residence time for 137Cs was estimated to be 8.1 years in drinking water and 5.7 years in fallout. The correlation between 137Cs in fallout and in drinking water is very good, and this indicates that fallout is the main source of water contamination. The observed 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in drinking water for the post-Chernobyl period was similar to the ratio found in other environmental samples. The estimation of annual effective doses received by the adult members of the Croatian population due to the intake of radiocaesium in drinking water showed quite small doses of 0.28 μSv in 1987 decreasing to 2.5 nSv in 2018, which indicated that drinking water was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium to humans.
Source term is the amount of radionuclide activity, measured in becquerels, released to the atmosphere from a nuclear reactor, together with the plume composition, over a specific period. It is the basis of radioprotection-related calculation. Usually, such computations are done using commercial codes; however, they are challenging to be used in the case of the MARIA reactor due to its unique construction. Consequently, there is a need to develop a method that will be able to deliver useful results despite the complicated geometry of the reactor site. Such an approach, based upon the Bateman balance equation, is presented in the article, together with the results of source term calculation for the MARIA reactor. Additionally, atmospheric dispersion of the radionuclides, analysed with the Gauss plume model with dry deposition, is presented.
The city of Krakow located in southern Poland ranks among the most polluted urban agglomerations in Europe. There are persisting controversies with respect to impact of different pollution sources operating in Krakow agglomeration on air quality within the city. The presented pilot study was aimed at exploring the possibilities offered by elemental and carbon isotope composition of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) for better characterization of its sources in Krakow atmosphere. The analyses of carbon isotope composition of total carbon in the investigated TSPM samples were supplemented by parallel analyses of radiocarbon content in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This study revealed large seasonal variability of carbon isotope composition in the analysed TSPM samples. This large variability reflects seasonally varying contribution of different sources of fossil and modern carbon to the TSPM pool. The elemental composition of TSPM also reveals distinct seasonal variability of the analysed elements, reflecting varying mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources of those elements. A linear relationship between the fossil carbon load in the TSPM samples and the fossil carbon load in the atmospheric CO2 was found, pointing to the presence of additional source of anthropogenic carbonaceous particles not associated with burning of fossil fuels. Wearing of tyres and asphalt pavement is most probably the main source of such particles.
Bis[bis(dibutylamino)methylen]hydrazine 8 is prepared from N,N,N′,N′-tetrabutylchloroformamidinium chloride (4c) and hydrazine. Bromine transforms 8 to the heterocyclic guanidinium salt 15a which is isolated as tetraphenylborate. From N,N,N′,N′-tetraalkylchloroformamidiniumchlorides and ethylendiamine the diguanidines are prepared which are alkylated to give diguanidinium salts, From these salts guanidinium salts can be prepared by anion metathesis with tetraphenylborate-, iodide-, hexafluorphosphate-, trifluoromethansulfonat-, bis(trifluormethansulfonyl)imide and tricyanmethanide as counteranions. The structure of the compounds 15 and 17b is confirmed by crystal structure analyses.
In view of several significant discrepancies in the excitation function of the 86Sr(p,n)86g+xmY reaction which is the method of choice for the production of the non-standard positron emitter 86Y for theranostic application, we carried out a careful measurement of the cross sections of this reaction from its threshold up to 16.2 MeV at Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and from 14.3 to 24.5 MeV at LBNL. Thin samples of 96.4% enriched 86SrCO3 were prepared by sedimentation and, after irradiation with protons in a stacked-form, the induced radioactivity was measured by high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The projectile flux was determined by using the monitor reactions natCu(p,xn)62,63,65Zn and natTi(p,x)48V, and the calculated proton energy for each sample was verified by considering the ratios of two reaction products of different thresholds. The experimental cross section data obtained agreed well with the results of a nuclear model calculation based on the code TALYS. From the cross section data, the integral yield of 86Y was calculated. Over the optimum production energy range Ep = 14 → 7 MeV the yield of 86Y amounts to 291 MBq/μA for 1 h irradiation time. This value is appreciably lower than the previous literature values calculated from measured and evaluated excitation functions. It is, however, more compatible with the experimental yields of 86Y obtained in clinical scale production runs. The levels of the isotopic impurities 87mY, 87gY, and 88Y were also estimated and found to be <2% in sum.
The study demonstrates the accomplishment of single step, direct supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC CO2) dissolution and extraction of uranium from crude matrices viz. yellow cakes (>90%) and rock phosphate ores (70%) employing adducts of trialkyl phosphates and nitric acid, thus avoiding free acid usage and eliminating number of process steps. Rock phosphate ore was made amenable for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system by unique strategy of pyrohydrolytic removal of fluorine. Pressure and temperature conditions, which were found to influence uranium extraction efficiency, were optimized at 150 atm. and 323 K. Two milliliter of adduct amount was found to be adequate. Adducts of branched alkyl phosphate, tri-isoamyl phosphate and tri-ethyl hexyl phosphate (TEHP), yield better purity in comparision to straight chain tri-butyl phosphate (TBP).
N,N,N′,N′-Tetraalkylchlorformamidiniumchlorides 1a, b react with ω-dimethylaminoalkylamines 19, 20 to give mixtures of N-(ω-dimethylammonioalkyl)-guanidinium salts 12, 13 and N-(ω-dimethylaminoalkyl)-guanidinium salts 21, 22. These mixtures are transformed to mixtures of the ureas 15, 17 and N-(ω-dimethylaminoalkyl)-guanidines 23, 25 on treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide. The reaction of N-(3-dimethylammoniopropyl)-guanidin 25a with dimethylsulfate in a molar ratio of 1:1 delivers a mixture of the N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N,N,N′,N′,N″,N″-pentamethyl-guanidinium salt 29a and the N-(3-dimethylammoniopropyl)-N,N′,N′,N″,N″-pentamethyl-guanidinium-bis (methylsulfate) 33a. The action of dimethylsulfate on the guanidines 23a, 25a in a molar ratio of 2:1 affords the bisquarternary salts 32a, 33a. Alkylating reagents as methyliodide, benzylbromide, allylbromide and chloroacetonitrile attack N-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-N′,N′,N″,N″-tetraethylguanidine (23b) in a molar ratio of 1:1 cleanly at the dimethylaminoethylgroup to give the ammonium salts 30a–d. As a strong base the guanidine 23b dehydrochlorinates β-Chlorpropionitrile and chloroacetone under formation of the guanidinium salt 21c. In contrast to this the reaction of ethyl bromoacetate with the N-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)guanidine 23b occurs at the guanidinogroup giving the guanidinium salt 28c. The methylation of the guanidinium chlorides 21a, 22a with dimethyl sulfate affords the bis-quaternary salts 35b, 36b with mixed anions. From the heterocyclic guanidines 14, 16 and the alkylating reagents benzylbromide and ethyl bromoacetate the heterocyclic guanidinium salts 37a, b, 39a, b can be obtained. The reactions with ethyl chloroformiate proceed in an analogous way giving the guanidinium salts 37c, 39c. The N-alkyl-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-(3-ureidopropyl)guanidinium salts 41a, b can be prepared from the N′,N′,N″,N″-tetramethyl-N′′-(3-ureidopropyl) guanidine 17a and the alkylating compounds dimethyl sulfate and benzyl bromide. Several compounds obtained that way were transformed to the corresponding tetraphenyloborates and bis(tetraphenylborates), respectively.