Group theoretical arguments are used to find the subgroup corresponding to symmetry reduction along a particular irreducible representation of a group. The results are used to guide the search for stationary points on the potential energy surface of hydrated copper(I) ion at the HF/6-31G∗, HF/6-31+G∗, HF/6-311+G∗, MP2/6-31G∗, MP2/6-31+G∗, MP2/6-311+G∗, B3LYP/6-31G∗, B3LYP/6-31+G∗, and B3LYP/6-311+G∗ levels. The better levels give the most stable coordination number of two. The effect of desymmetrization on the Cu-O distances and stretching frequencies has been examined.
Water electrolysis is an environment-friendly process of producing hydrogen with zero-carbon emission. Herein, we studied the water vapor electrolysis using a proton-conducting membrane composed of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets intercalated with cations (Al3+ and Ce3+). We examined the effect of cation introduction on the physical and chemical structures, morphology, thermal and chemical stabilities, and the proton conductivity of stacked GO nanosheet membranes by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Concentration cell measurements revealed that the cation-modified membranes are pure proton conductors at room temperature. The proton conductivity of a GO membrane was much improved by cation modification. The cation-modified GO membranes, sandwiched with Pt/C electrodes as the cathode and anode, electrolyzed humidified air to produce hydrogen at room temperature, indicating the feasibility of this carbon-based electrochemical device.
Using purine as a scaffold, the methods for preparation of novel 2-aminopurine and purine derivatives substituted at position C6 by the fragments of natural amino acids, short peptides, and N-heterocycles, including enantiopure ones, have been proposed. The methods for determination of the enantiomeric purity of the obtained chiral compounds have been developed. Conjugates exhibiting high antimycobacterial or anti-herpesvirus activity against both laboratory and multidrug-resistant strains were revealed among the obtained compounds.
It is shown that self-heating of a compacted sample made of nonpassivated iron nanopowder is not uniform, although it begins simultaneously within the entire surface of the sample. It is found that the maximum temperature of self-heating decreases with an increase in relative density of samples, which indicates that the oxidation process is limited by the diffusion supply of oxidant. It is shown that the process of interaction of samples with the air occurs in a superficial mode. A qualitative agreement of the results of the theoretical analysis with experimental data is obtained. The possibility of passivation of compacted samples made of iron nanopowder is experimentally established.
The International Year of The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements revealed that the Table remains both a deeply fundamental paradigm for various branches of chemistry and a universal practical tool for predictable design of new materials. Silver is a notable “nanoelement” particularly known by its plasmonic properties. A key advantage of this metal is an easily achievable morphological variety of nanostructured materials. This element represents a research branch of precise engineering of shapes and sizes of nanoparticle ensembles and smart hierarchic nanostructures. In the review, unique features of silver are discussed with respect to the development of novel analytical methods for forthcoming applications of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in ecology, biology and medicine.
The structure of aq. sodium acetate solution (CH3COONa, NaOAc) was studied by X-ray scattering and density function theory (DFT). For the first hydrated layer of Na+, coordination number (CN) between Na+ and O(W, I) decreases from 5.02 ± 0.85 at 0.976 mol/L to 3.62 ± 1.21 at 4.453 mol/L. The hydration of carbonyl oxygen (OC) and hydroxyl oxygen (OOC) of CH3COO− were investigated separately and the OC shows a stronger hydration bonds comparing with OOC. With concentrations increasing, the hydration shell structures of CH3COO− are not affected by the presence of large number of ions, each CH3COO− group binds about 6.23 ± 2.01 to 7.35 ± 1.73 water molecules, which indicates a relatively strong interaction between CH3COO− and water molecules. The larger uncertainty of the CN of Na+ and OC(OOC) reflects the relative looseness of Na-OC and Na-OOC ion pairs in aq. NaOAc solutions, even at the highest concentration (4.453 mol/L), suggesting the lack of contact ion pair (CIP) formation. In aq. NaOAc solutions, the so called “structure breaking” property of Na+ and CH3COO− become effective only for the second hydration sphere of bulk water. The DFT calculations of CH3COONa (H2O)n=5–7 clusters suggest that the solvent-shared ion pair (SIP) structures appear at n = 6 and become dominant at n = 7, which is well consistent with the result from X-ray scattering.
Site-specific protein conjugation is a critical step in the generation of unique protein analogs for a range of basic research and therapeutic developments. Protein transformations must target a precise residue in the presence of a plethora of functional groups to obtain a well-characterized homogeneous product. Competing reactive residues on natural proteins render rapid and selective conjugation a challenging task. Organometallic reagents have recently emerged as a powerful strategy to achieve site-specific labeling of a diverse set of biopolymers, due to advances in water-soluble ligand design, high reaction rate, and selectivity. The thiophilic nature of various transition metals, especially soft metals, makes cysteine an ideal target for these reagents. The distinctive reactivity and selectivity of organometallic-based reactions, along with the unique reactivity and abundancy of cysteine within the human proteome, provide a powerful platform to modify native proteins in aqueous media. These reactions often provide the modified proteins with a stable linkage made from irreversible cross-coupling steps. Additionally, transition metal reagents have recently been applied for the decaging of cysteine residues in the context of chemical protein synthesis. Orthogonal cysteine protecting groups and functional tags are often necessary for the synthesis of challenging proteins, and organometallic reagents are powerful tools for selective, rapid, and water-compatible removal of those moieties. This review examines transition metal-based reactions of cysteine residues for the synthesis and modification of natural peptides and proteins.
The competitive routes were found for three-component cyclization of polyfluoroalkyl-3-oxo esters, methyl ketones with 3-amino alcohols. It was shown that the reactions with 3-aminopropanol in 1,4-dioxane predominantly lead to hexahydropyrido[2,1-b][1,3]oxazin-6-ones, and in ethanol to 3-hydroxypropylaminocyclohexenones. In contrast, cyclizations with 2-aminoethanol and its analogues, regardless of the reaction conditions, yield hexahydrooxazolo[3,2-a]pyridin-5-ones as the main products. The trans- and cis-diastereomeric structure of heterocycles was established using X-ray and 1H, 19F, 13C NMR spectroscopy, 2D 1H-13C HSQC and HMBC experiments. The mechanism is proposed for competitive transformations of polyfluoroalkyl-3-oxo esters, methyl ketones with 3-amino alcohols.
By the methods of MALDI and mass spectroscopy with the detection of positively and negatively charged ions, it was found that the reaction of elemental sulfur and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate is accompanied by the opening of the S8 ring. 1H, 13C, 15N and 31P NMR spectroscopy showed that the interaction of S8 and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate proceeds exclusively on the oxygen atom of the dimethylphosphate anion carrying a negative charge. Kohn-Sham calculations at B3LYP/STO-3G, B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-311G* levels of theory confirmed that the reaction of S8 with dimethylphosphate anion is possible.