In the present work, we study the rotations of the polarization of light propagating in right and left-handed films and layered structures. Through the use of complex values representing the rotations we analyze the transmission (Faraday effect) and reflections (Kerr effect) of light. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the complex angle of Faraday and Kerr rotations are odd and even functions for the refractive index n, respectively. In the thin film case with left-handed materials there are large resonant enhancements of the reflected Kerr angle that could be obtained experimentally. In the magnetic clock approach, used in the tunneling time problem, two characteristic time components are related to the real and imaginary portions of the complex Faraday rotation angle . The complex angle at the different propagation regimes through a finite stack of alternating right and left-handed materials is analyzed in detail. We found that, in spite of the fact that Re(θ) in the forbidden gap is almost zero, the Im(θ) changes drastically in both value and sign.
In this study, the root exudates of wetland plants, Pistia stratiotes, black algae, and Cyperus alternifolius, exposed to six phosphorus concentration gradients (0, 0.2, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L) were characterized. The experimental seedlings were cultivated in Hoagland solutions, which were then extracted, decompressed, and concentrated with CH2Cl2; subsequently, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed to study the root exudates effects under different phosphorus concentrations. Results showed the existence of several organic compounds, such as alkanes, esters, alcohols, amines, benzene, and acids (phthalic acid, cycloheptasiloxane, benzoic acid, and cyclopentasiloxane) in the root exudates of the wetland plants. The relative contents of phthalate, benzene dicarboxylic acid, and cyclohexasiloxane in the root exudates first increased, and then decreased, with the change in phosphorus concentration. The relative contents of three compounds in Pistia were the highest at 1 mg/L of phosphorus, and the lowest relative contents of phthalic acid and benzene dicarboxylic acid were observed at 20 mg/L of phosphorus. However, the relative content of cyclohexasiloxane was the lowest in the absence of P stress. In black algae, the relative contents of the three compounds were 36.66, 16.24, and 14.61%, respectively. The relative content of cyclohexasiloxane in the black algae first decreased and then increased, with its lowest relative content occurring at 5 mg/L of phosphorus and the highest at 10 mg/L of phosphorus. In Cyperus alternifolius, the highest relative concentrations of the four compounds: phthalic acid, dimethyl phthalate, octadecane, and diphenyl sulfone in Cyperus were observed at 5 mg/L phosphorus and the lowest at 10 mg/L phosphorus.
The soil water was stratified sampling and analyzed with 0–100 cm by three plantation (Leucaena Benth Forest land, Dodonaea angustifolia Shrub land and Heteropogon contortus grassland) at the dry-hot Valley in Jinsha River, at June, September, December of 2016, which were to know about the variation and mechanism of soil water movement. The results showed that (1) soil water in different soil layers is significantly different, and the overall performance is shrub land (11.65%) > grassland (8.29%) > forest land (6.76%); (2) the δD isotope ratio of the soil water from all samples ranged from −146.359% to −54.628% and the δ18O isotope ratio ranged from −20.272% to −2.148%, and there is a good linear relationship between isotope ratios of soil water of three different soils; (3) there is a change with season: the intercept of the isotopes ratio at different months decreased in turn, June < September < December. While the shrub lands and grassland had the same pattern but slightly different, the isotope ratio of soil moisture in December was lower, and the intercepts of shrub land in September were significantly larger than in December; (4) there is a change in space: the total difference isotopes ratio of soil water is larger at the shallow soil layer and changed sharply at all positions of the forestland, while those in the shrub land and grassland changed became relatively weakly. This study provides the theoretical basis for the key problems of plant water using mechanism, ecological water demand, vegetation recovery and so on.
Polyalthia is one of the largest genera in the Annonaceae family, and has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatic fever, gastrointestinal ulcer, and generalized body pain. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the composition of the essential oils of four Polyalthia species (P. sumatrana, P. stenopetalla, P. cauliflora, and P. rumphii) growing in Malaysia. The chemical composition of these essential oils was determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The multivariate analysis was determined using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The results revealed that the studied essential oils are made up principally of bicyclogermacrene (18.8%), cis-calamenene (14.6%) and β-elemene (11.9%) for P. sumatrana; α-cadinol (13.0%) and δ-cadinene (10.2%) for P. stenopetalla; δ-elemene (38.1%) and β-cubebene (33.1%) for P. cauliflora; and finally germacrene D (33.3%) and bicyclogermacrene for P. rumphii. PCA score and HCA plots revealed that the essential oils were classified into three separated clusters of P. cauliflora (Cluster I), P. sumatrana (Cluster II), and P. stenopetalla, and P. rumphii (Cluster III) based on their characteristic chemical compositions. Our findings demonstrate that the essential oil could be useful for the characterization, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic applications of Polyalthia essential oil.
The world is facing, while writing this review, a global pandemic due to one of the types of the coronaviruses (i.e., COVID-19), which is a new virus. Among the most important reasons for the transmission of infection between humans is the presence of this virus active on the surfaces and materials. Here, we addressed important questions such as do coronaviruses remain active on the inanimate surfaces? Do the types of inanimate surfaces affect the activity of coronaviruses? What are the most suitable ingredients that used to inactivate viruses? This review article addressed many of the works that were done in the previous periods on the survival of many viruses from the coronaviruses family on various surfaces such as steel, glass, plastic, Teflon, ceramic tiles, silicon rubber and stainless steel copper alloys, Al surface, sterile sponges, surgical gloves and sterile latex. The impacts of environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity were presented and discussed. The most important active ingredients that can deactivate viruses on the surfaces were reported here. We hope that these active ingredients will have the same effect on COVID-19.
This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiotic-enhancing effects of the essential oil obtained from Ocimum gratissimum L. (OEOg) alone or in association with light-emitting diodes (LED) lights. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The antibacterial and antibiotic-enhancing activities against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were evaluated by the gaseous contact method. The analysis of the photoinductive effect on the antibacterial activity of the OEOg and antibiotics was assessed through exposure to different LED lights (red, blue and yellow). The phytochemical analysis identified five compounds, including eugenol, as the major constituent. The OEOg caused a significant inhibition of the halo, indicating a direct antibacterial effect. Exposure to the LED lights significantly enhanced the activity of the OEOg against E. coli. On the other hand, the action of the essential oil against S. aureus was enhanced by exposure to both blue and yellow lights. The effects of LED light exposure on the activity of conventional antibiotics varied significantly according to the drug and the bacterial strain. However, most combinations of LED lights and the OEOg presented synergistic effects against resistant bacterial strains, indicating enhanced antibacterial activity. Thus, these in vitro findings suggest that both OEOg and LED lights have promising antibacterial effects. Nevertheless, further research is required to evaluate in vivo the potential of these therapies for the treatment of infectious skin diseases.
Today, the numbers of people suffering from lifestyle diseases like diabetes, obesity, allergies and depression increases mainly in industrialised states. That does not only lower patients’ quality of life but also severely stresses the health care systems of these countries. Essential oils (EO) have been in use as therapeutic remedies for centuries against various complaints, but still their effectiveness is being underestimated. In the last decades, a great number of controlled studies have supported efficacy of these volatile secondary plant metabolites for various therapeutic indications. Besides others, EO has antidepressant, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antifirogenic and antiallergic effects. In this review the pharmacological mechanisms for selected EO are summarised and discussed with the main attention on their impact against public health disorders. Additionally, toxicity of these oils as well as possible drug interactions is presented.
The crystal structures of various types of perovskite halide compounds were summarized and described. Atomic arrangements of these perovskite compounds can be investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the structural models of basic perovskite halides, X-ray and electron diffractions were calculated and discussed to compare with the experimental data. Other halides such as elemental substituted or cation ordered double perovskite compounds were also described. In addition to the ordinary 3-dimensional perovskites, low dimensional perovskites with 2-, 1-, or 0-dimensionalities were summarized. The structural stabilities of the perovskite halides could be investigated computing the tolerance and octahedral factors, which can be useful for the guideline of elemental substitution to improve the structures and properties, and several low toxic halides were proposed. For the device conformation, highly crystalline-orientated grains and dendritic structures can be formed and affected the photo-voltaic properties. The actual crystal structures of perovskite halides in the thin film configuration were studied by Rietveld analysis optimizing the atomic coordinates and occupancies with low residual factors. These results are useful for structure analysis of perovskite halide crystals, which are expected to be next-generation solar cell materials.
The microstructure and texture in pure nickel were investigated during multi-step cross cold rolling (CCR) and subsequent annealing. It was found that the deformation texture in the CCR nickel was dominated by Brass and rotated Brass about normal direction (ND) (BsND) texture components, along with marginal cube textures. The resulted deformation textures had a significant effect on the recrystallization behavior. Annealing of the CCR nickel at 550°C for 1 h led to the formation of dominant <012> // ND fiber accompanied by minor rotated cube textures, rather than strong cube texture. Increasing the annealing temperature up to 800°C resulted in further enhancement of <012> // ND fiber textures. The possible reasons for recrystallization behavior in annealed CCR sample were discussed based on in-situ annealing experiments from two aspects of oriented nucleation and oriented growth theories.
Tissue factor (TF) which plays a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis appears to be an attractive target and medicinal plants having alkaloids inhibition TF activity benefit to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of study is to explore further knowledge about alkaloids and TF. TF procoagulant activities were determined by the simplified chromogenic assay and their mRNA expression were then examined by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Besides, the potential of TF/FVIIa binding with four representative alkaloids were analyzed by molecular docking. The results indicated that these isoquinoline alkaloids with various structures had a different effect on suppression of TF activity. Molecular docking showed four alkaloids including l-corydalmine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, and tetrahydropalmatine were stably posed in the active binding pocket of TF/FVIIa. The SARs analysis showed the structural difference including planar, quaternary nitrogen, and the peripheral functional groups at C-8, C-9, C-10, have strong effect on inhibition of TF activity, which provided effective methods to modify isoquinoline alkaloids for inhibiting TF activity. This study provides a further evidence for the cardiovascular protection of isoquinoline alkaloids, and has physiological significance in the clinical challenge to use isoquinoline alkaloids or their potential analogs in the treatment of CVD.