This paper argues that Russian Formalism is to be considered a constitutive part of the international empiriocritical movement—Ernst Mach (1838—1916) and Richard Avenarius’s (1843—1896). The conceptual parallelism between Empiriocriticism and Formalism is striking indeed. Thus, the cornerstones of the empiriocritical approach—the concept of series [Reihe] and the concept of elements [Elemente], understood as sensations [Empfindungen]—are plainly recognizable within formalist theories: the notion of ‘series’ (for example, the notion of ‘literary series’ or ‘poetic series’, leading to the famous concept of ‘literariness’, literaturnost’) and the very formalist idea of a necessarily perceptible character of aesthetic form are only two, most famous, examples of this astonishing affinity. Here are some of the most striking convergences between Empiriocriticism and Formalism: the relativity of any knowledge; continuity between knowledge and perception; the pragmatic dominant; the leitmotif of ‘the Unsalvageable Ego’. Besides, the paper seeks to situate Russian Formalism within European Aesthetic German-speaking Formalism. This kind of formalism formulates some basic oppositions correlated to different types of forming being associated with specific means and specific formal devices to affect them. In this context, particular morphological features result in producing particular feelings conceived in the spatial or syntactic perspective. From its German-speaking analogue, Russian Formalism has inherited this relational and spatial definition of feelings and, largely speaking, of emotionality within art. Indeed, both formalisms treat emotion as a ‘non-subjective’, ‘kinetic’, ‘syntactic’ phenomenon located on the surface of aesthetic objects.
This article’s purpose is to analyse the derived forms of term frère in French culture, where its correspondent is frérot, and in Italian culture, where the correspondent is fratè. We will try to show how and why, if yes or not, the two terms represent the same realities in both languages; if there is a same semantic extension and how the speakers of both languages use the two derived forms in their conversations. This study is contrastive, and its objective is also to define convergences and divergences of the use of the two forms fratè and frérot in the languages under analysis, that is to say French and Italian.
Self-assessment reports are a type of alternative assessment and provide a gateway of formative assessment by which learners get opportunities to reflect on their learning process and assess it, provided they are aware of their abilities and progress. In this exploratory study, we examine the self-assessment reports of 12 adult ESL learners enrolled in an Indian university programme where they assess the course content and language gains (reading and writing) from the course. Based on a mixed method of analysis, the learners were found to use exemplification to suit their discourse style. A quantitative analysis showed that the learners were using a variety of exemplification techniques like (i) brief examples with (a) phrases and (b) sentences; (ii) extended examples; and (iii) testimonials to support and argue for their assessments. Furthermore, the learners were found to use these different types of exemplification according to the levels of unity or coherence in their reports, which were at three levels – low (16 %), medium (50 %), and high unity (34 %). For instance, the presence of the first two sub-types of exemplification was found to be more frequent across the learners of low and medium unity whereas the last two types were more prevalent in the high text unity group of learners. A one-way goodness of fit chi-square test revealed that the two frequent sub-types were well distributed for the entire group as well as for the learners whose essays achieved low and medium unity while for the learners who achieved high unity the distribution was equal. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis of a few excerpts showed the types and purposes of using exemplification with 23 % overt and 77 % null markers; it was interesting to note that the null markers did not affect the communicative content of the reports as the learners were found to use other syntactic strategies to mark the presence of exemplification like listing of ideas and using wh-question markers preceding the ideas. A few instances of personalized anecdotal experiences showed that learners were using exemplification to substantiate their arguments at a high level. What is implied from this analysis is that such semi-formal self-assessment reports can be used for two purposes: to assess a course and document learner growth and orientation towards learning, and through the assessment task, trigger a linguistic gain such as develop argumentation skills in adult ESL learners.
In this article, we deal with similarity between epigenetic marks in the DNA and the so-called hapaxes in language. A grammar description based on hapax legomena is designed. We reflect hapax analysis of Czech language provided by Novotná (2013) and avoid random selection of the corpus. For this reason, we analyze the corpus of 12 authentic books from 12 authors who elaborated the theme “What’s new in…” concerning their field of science, assigned by Nová beseda publishing. By analyzing middle-sized corpus, we expected results similar to those in case of large-scale national corpus (see Novotná 2013). We chose to classify hapaxes into different categories in comparison to Novotná, yet the results show similar language productive categories. This kind of language potentiality seems to be analogical to epigenetic processes in biology, which is briefly introduced.
In January 2018, the President of the Czech Republic was elected. Before that, each of the candidates communicated their intention to run for the office in a different kind of speech. By using selected characteristics we evaluate and compare these candidate speeches. Subsequently, we reflect on the possibilities of correlating the results of the election with data collected during the analysis.
This afterword draws insights and conclusions from the preceding chapters by critically engaging once again with the disciplinary status of multimodality. It explicates the main points of discussion of the contributions and makes some recommendations concerning disciplinarity and multimodality. The path taken addresses multimodality at a fundamental philosophical and practical level, reflecting some of the requirements that establishing a discipline of multimodality would entail. This presents multimodality and its study increasingly in a particular light of its own and, as a consequence, it will be argued that a strengthening of disciplinary claims for multimodality is at this time not only beneficial but, in certain important respects, crucial for advancing beyond the current, somewhat disparate, state(s) of the art.
The European ADLAB project, coordinated by the University of Trieste, sought to promote the practice of audio description (AD), a method designed to provide access to blind and sight-impaired persons, particularly in the field of cinema and television, by creating a set of pan-European ‘strategic’ guidelines for the profession. A new European project (ADLAB PRO) is now in progress, again coordinated in Trieste, aimed firstly at creating the profile of the professional audio describer, but also including an extension of audio description research into museums, art galleries, churches, important landmarks, and so on. This new development weds AD to the early multimodal work of O’Toole, Kress and van Leeuwen, Baldry and Thibault, etc. As regards the descriptions of museum exhibits, the most effective approach to satisfying the needs of the blind and sight-impaired public needs to be found. Empirical analyses of the linguistic components of descriptions for sighted and non-sighted visitors, as they are presented in audioguides for example, need to be compared, in order to explore the variations in textuality required for audio descriptions. Cognitive linguistics, systemic-functional linguistics, discourse analysis, and other sources will be activated in the search for the most user-friendly yet informative format. But over and above these considerations, there is an ever clearer need to go beyond the image/word symbiosis and bring in other senses in the multimodal approach to AD. One of the project’s aims is to study this approach in depth and extend it to various areas of audio description research for museums. This intersensorial approach will then be expanded further to embrace the use of music, sounds, smell, and taste wherever they can enhance the multimodal experience.
This study uses three examples of Edwardian (1901-1914) book inscriptions- a prize inscription, gift inscription, and bookplate-to demonstrate how the adoption of an ethnohistorical approach, in which choices of image, color, typography, and materiality are grounded in archival research, can strengthen multimodal analysis. Furthermore, it argues that, while book inscriptions may seem insignificant markers of ownership, they, in fact, act as a material microcosm of many of the social tensions that existed between class groups in early twentieth-century Britain. The analysis reveals that inscriptions were primarily used to objectify their owners’ economic means and cultural necessities, and assert themselves in a social space, whether to uphold their rank or keep their distance from other groups. These findings demonstrate the importance of embedding hypotheses concerning the function and form of artifacts in concrete historical documents.