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How the Sharing Economy Got Hijacked and How to Win It Back
The History of the French Welfare State

Abstract

This paper examines differences in the hazard rates of young, established and mature firms during the financial crisis, using microdata from more than 300,000 Irish firms. The findings confirm that firm size at the time of the crisis had the largest impact on the probability of exit. The liability of smallness was pronounced in mature cohorts. Industry conditions had a considerable effect on the hazard rate of young cohorts, as opposed to mature counterparts. Interestingly, agglomeration raised the hazard rates of younger cohorts only. By contrast, attributes of the labour force of the region largely influenced the hazard rates of more established firms. Firms founded before the crisis were significantly less likely to exit in the aftermath of the crisis, in comparison with firms founded just before or during the crisis, whereas more mature firms seem to be more sensitive to the economic cycle.

Abstract

Given the changes in the Irish economy since the economic crisis and, more specifically, reforms in the local government sector, this paper reassesses the financial position and fiscal sustainability of local authorities in Ireland. To do this we employ a local government financial performance framework that measures liquidity and solvency, but also operating performance and collection rates, for different sources of revenue income. Using financial data sourced from local council income and expenditure accounts and balance sheets, we report and analyse the financial position and performance during the 2007–17 period. The results indicate an improvement in the financial performance of local councils since the early 2010s. Cross-council differences persist, in particular, between large urban local authorities and smaller rural local authorities, albeit only for the liquidity and operating performance measures. Among the small rural councils, Sligo County Council’s financial position, although improving, remains a serious matter with ongoing consultation with and monitoring by central government. To help improve the measurement of local authority financial performance we recommend inclusion of this framework in the local authority Annual Financial Statement and also in the Performance Indicator Report with a view to making financial reports more accessible and transparent to citizens and taxpayers and, ultimately, to help improve performance and service delivery by the local authorities.

Abstract

Collaboration is an important means of tackling local socio-economic challenges. This paper looks at how the collaborative capacity of Ireland’s community development leaders can be improved. The most recent efforts to establish a more coordinated and coherent approach to community development saw the introduction of a new local committee structure, known as local community development committees (LCDCs). LCDCs were expected to enhance collaboration between public, private and third sector socio-economic partners. However, effective intersectoral collaboration is often difficult to attain. A programme of capacity building can play a key part in supporting collaborative working between local leaders. Based on the findings from a place-based leadership development workshop, this paper discusses the barriers to collaboration facing community development leaders and how these might be overcome. Surfacing and working through tensions to enable clarity, through enhanced mutual understanding and strong relationships across community development committees, is vitally important. To this end, a practical and evidence-based approach to improving collaboration between local leaders is argued for.

Abstract

This paper sets out to better understand the roles of various actors and actions in the ‘making’ of Galway city. From the formation of the state, with a population of just over 14,000, the city has enjoyed population growth rates above EU and Irish averages over the past three decades. This paper maps a series of growth phases resulting from sometimes deliberate and other times non-deliberate policy decisions. The theoretical lens adopted is that of evolutionary economic geography. This is an attempt to counteract the tendency in broader social science research to underplay geographical aspects, such as places, space and scales. Economic geography – and evolutionary economic geography in particular – better identifies the complexity and nuance of place development. Theorists such as Boschma (2017) and Martin & Sunley (2015) consider development as a path-dependent process. Development is situated and place-based. This requires a more historically attuned perspective and a recognition that the role played by institutions, government and policy is vital. The paper concludes with a broad reflection on the role of spatial development policy and the potential future development of the city.

Abstract

The Bystander Intervention Model (BIM) is applied to explore how bystanders to workplace bullying assess situations and choose responses based on the (female) target’s sexual orientation. We investigate how attitudes of homophobia and amnestic heterosexism (AH) affect these responses. Vignettes of workplace mistreatment against lesbian, female bisexuals, or female heterosexual targets were randomly presented to respondents, who were asked to assess the degree of “mistreatment” they perceive, their feelings of personal responsibility, and their anticipated responses. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Regardless of levels of homophobia or AH, respondents report less active intervention when the target is lesbian compared to bisexual or heterosexual females. Respondents do not distinguish between conditions in clarity or severity of bullying. However, those higher in homophobia and AH feel less personal responsibility and are less likely to intervene when the target is lesbian.

Abstract

The Irish Government has identified research and development (R&D) and innovation as among the key pillars of growth within the economy. To achieve this growth, R&D tax incentives, which are adopted in advanced economies, are set into policy to encourage firms to innovate, thus, making companies more competitive and productive. One of the key enablers to driving R&D is a well-designed, competitive and sustainable tax policy to support the activity. However, evidence on the effectiveness of R&D tax incentives for innovation is largely anecdotal and the influence of innovation on firm-level taxation is still underexplored, in terms of and empirical examination. This paper sets out to review the recent trends and views of industry regarding R&D tax credits.