The study aims to investigate the impact of organisational e-readiness on e-marketing diffusion in tourism businesses of Ethiopia. The research is based on a questionnaire survey and uses Structural Equation Modelling to test the conceptual model that extends technology diffusion theories. The study validates the conceptual model extended from Perceived Organisational E-readiness, Innovation Diffusion Theory and Technology Adoption Model to explain e-marketing diffusion. The findings indicated that perceived organisational e-readiness significantly affects e-marketing diffusion. The result implied that technology diffusion theories such as Technology Adoption Model and perceived organ-isational e-readiness were valid in demonstrating e-marketing diffusion. Though ease of use affected e-marketing diffusion, the impacts of compatibility and relative advantage were not significant; and thus, the indirect effect of organisational e-readiness on e-marketing diffusion was not significant. The finding also reinforces the necessity of a multilevel model to explain e-marketing diffusion in developing countries.
The aim of this research is to segment foreign tourists to Sarajevo based on the frequency of visits in order to make a distinction between first-time and repeat foreign tourists. The purpose is to discover if repeat foreign tourists have more positive intention to revisit and recommend Sarajevo, if they have more positive attitude towards overall satisfaction with tourist destination and if they have more positive opinion about the general quality of this tourist destination offer than first-time foreign tourists. The study used a quantitative approach for research. The survey sample is a convenience sample of 250 foreign tourists who visited Sarajevo during the winter (from December 10, 2018 to January 31, 2019). To achieve scientific relevance, during the analysis and interpretation of the obtained data, descriptive statistics and Mann–Whitney U test were used. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference, and that first-time and repeat foreign tourists had the same intention of recommending Sarajevo, had a positive attitude towards the overall satisfaction of the tourist destination and had the same opinion about the general quality of this tourist destination offer. The results also indicated that repeat foreign tourists had more positive intention to revisit Sarajevo.
Tourism shows a significant transformation. Therefore, knowing the perception of residents regarding its impacts can conduce to more adequate public policies, strategies, decisions and actions, more adapted to residents’ expectations, involving these stakeholders and deepening their engagement in tourism development. This study is a work in progress1. Its main objective is to identify the perceptions of residents of the Lisbon region regarding the impacts of tourism. A quantitative methodology was used to analyse respondents’ perceptions based on descriptive statistical techniques and non-parametric tests. The results of this research indicate that residents have a positive attitude concerning economic, as well as cultural, social and environmental impacts. The study also reveals differences in attitude depending on age, gender and professional activity.
Due to their dynamic nature and importance in the service process definition, customers’ expectations have gained attention from researchers and practitioners, and have been essentially focused in developed countries from the Northern Hemisphere. Still, countries, regardless of the hemisphere, have different levels of socioeconomic development and cultural patterns that can have different influence on customers’ expectations about a service. In this sense, the main purpose of this research is to understand if culture equally influences customers’ expectations about a service in countries with different cultural patterns and human development levels. The multigroup analysis using structural equation modelling was used to calculate the regression weights for all the path combinations in the analysis for each proposed group of countries. About 1262 customers from 10 Latin countries were enrolled in this study to determine their expectations about the hotel service and cultural dimensions. Findings show that cultural dimensions influence customers’ expectations about the hotel service differently in groups of countries with different cultural patterns and levels of human development. Results also indicate that hotel managers should adapt the service to the level of human development of each group of countries when it comes to internationalisation.
Physical activities organised in nature have earned more commitment from tourists who intend to actively visit natural and authentic environments. This paper analyses the profile and the perceptions of active tourists who experienced canyoning and levada walking in the mountains of Madeira Island.
The study uses a quantitative methodology analysis, based on an anonymous questionnaire designed for 160 levada walker tourists and 130 canyoning tourists. Differences were found between the two groups in terms of their profile and assessment of the two activities. The levada walking profile is the one of older, but more active tourists who stay on the island more than 6 days and intend to experience unique and memorable activities related to waterways, mountain trails and cultural landscapes in a sense of freedom and well-being that nature provides. The canyoning profile is the one of younger tourists, more male than female, who are less active, travelling by cruise, and is with an emphasis on the challenges and natural barriers afforded by the steep and unpredictable characteristics of canyons (hedonism). The findings recommend segmentation of the tourists and a strategy for tourism destinations that highlight culture, endemic forest, authentic landscapes and the hospitality of local people in active tourism services.
The Madeira Island provides excellent conditions for tourism due to its variety of scenarios, weather conditions and topography, and it becomes fundamental to think about the tourists’ experience.
This study aims to understand the practitioner’s motivations on mountains hikes and Levada, and how visitors live the experience.
We applied a ‘QEFENRAM’ survey (Florido, 2010) with 3 main dimensions related to the practitioner’s experience while performing mountain hikes or Levadas: 1. Practitioner’s motivations; 2. Practitioner’s predisposition; 3. Practitioner’s experience.
We obtained 293 replies immediately after the activities’ conclusion (males: 124; female: 169) with the following results: a) Levels of motivation: 52.6% of the participants revelled intrinsic motivation, while 27.1% showed extrinsic motivation; b) Safety: 79.2% reported to be aware of safety measures and to have the necessary competence to perform the activity; c) Practitioners experience: 76.3% reported to be highly focused on their activity and felt to be part of the scenario itself. 10.9% referred to a feeling that, somehow, they were interfering, negatively, with the environment.
These findings can help to characterize the practitioner’s motivations and experience. Based on this information, we can discuss what to improve in the touristic scenarios to refine the experience in Levadas and mountain hikes.
The international attitude based on the ‘War on Drugs’, adopted by the United Nations in the second half of the twentieth century contributed to a situation where the debates related to drug issues were mostly concentrated in the spheres of biomedical sciences and public security. With the numerous transformations in relation to drug policies in several countries in the contemporary world, it was evident that tourism could play an important role with the emergence of the so-called ‘drug tourism’. In most cases, these changes were mainly related to cannabis, and in some regions where its recreational use has already been regulated, it was possible to notice significant reflexes in the tourist dynamics of these destinations, intensifying the role of cannabis tourism, a relevant sub-segment of drug tourism. The main purpose of this article was to contribute to the construction of fundamental theoretical and conceptual bases for a critical and scientific approach to this new topic by presenting a general overview on drug tourism; reflections and purposes on drug tourism concept; the main destinations already consolidated and; brief cannabis tourism case studies. Finally, inferences were made about future challenges of this tourism segment, which presents great prospects in the global scenario.
This article intends to demonstrate the importance of the existence of an aggregating platform for digital content, as is the case of MUVITUR – Virtual Museum of Tourism, for the research in tourism and also to assess its potential.
Aiming to track the history of Madeira’s destination image, this paper also searches to contribute to the study of the ‘Atlantic Pearl’ distinctive features for promotional purposes throughout seventy years.
For this purpose, the authors did an integrated search aiming to find and study the retrieved results of promotional visual materials edited during the twentieth century, focusing on Madeira Island, as an example of the potentialities of the Muvitur database.
With this research, we can conclude that tourism marketing strategies seem to have succeeded to consolidate Madeira’s destination image focused on its distinctiveness. Digital objects gathered in such searchable thematic databases, with a diversity of content providers, can play a crucial role in the history of tourism and leisure, allowing us, at the same time, to know how Madeira represented the destination for promotional aims.
Tourism is growing at a fast rate and so is its carbon footprint. Alongside conventional tourism, a new form of tourism, so-called voluntourism, has emerged. The discussion on voluntourism in the existing literature has hereby mainly centred around its positive impacts on the health and education of communities and the local environment in developing countries. Nevertheless, little attention has been drawn to its climate impacts. This study set out to investigate the carbon footprint of voluntourism. The data were collected at a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) in India working with voluntourists. Both the carbon footprint of the stay in India and that from the round trip by air were taken into consideration. The results showed that although the carbon footprint of voluntourists during their stay is comparable with that of locals, the flight significantly contributes to the carbon footprint of voluntourism. Depending on the distance flown and the length of the stay, the average share of the carbon footprint stemming from the flight can be between 83% and 96%. The article concludes that faraway destinations and short stays should be avoided; otherwise voluntourism might cause more harm than good. On the basis of the findings, this article provides recommendations for policymakers and further research.
Sustainability is currently one of the most pressing topics, and it is accepted that food has strong implications on the concept. On the other hand, food is very relevant for tourism, since not only it is part of the daily behaviour, but also it is also presented as a product. That is why we need to train food professionals with an increasing awareness to these issues in order to enable them for the design and production of sustainable and balanced meals.
Within the context of two curricular units included in the graduation on Cookery and Food Production, students were challenged to develop sustainable and balanced meals by reformulating the proportions of food, giving privilege to the vegetable component of the dish and lesser importance to products of animal origin. This includes the dish design and naming of the recipes. Some teacher–student dialogue was used, complemented with primary data collected by a questionnaire.
Results were undoubtedly good. Students became aware of the differences between the quantities normally served and those needed from the health and nutrition point of view, which also have a greater impact on sustainability. Considering the 17 United Nations (UN) Goals, several were focused, namely no. 3 – good health and well-being and no. 12 – responsible consumption and production.
Intervening and training future professionals in this area will make it easier to convey these good practices not only to the hospitality service, but also to the public daily life, with the potential to change mentalities about what should be the food for the future.