The aim of the study is to examine the effect of periwinkle shell ash (PSA) blended with cement on the water absorption and shrinkage of lateritic blocks. The objectives that would help achieve the stated aim are to investigate the water absorption and shrinkage properties of lateritic blocks blended with periwinkle shell ash/cement. The following methods were used during the research: sedimentation test, standard proctor test, Atterberg’s limit test, smell and Nibble tests. Specific gravity of PSA, bulk density and porosity of PSA were carried out. 5 % of the cement and percentage replacement levels of 0 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % of cement with PSA were used for block production. 21 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm blocks were moulded, cured and subjected to water absorption and shrinkage tests. Data were collected and analysed using graphs, correlation and regression analyses. Result shows that percentage water absorption for replacement levels 0 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 % were 12.08 %, 16.38 %, 18.21 %, 19.95 %. Again, from 0 % replacement to 30 % replacement of cement with PSA, the linear shrinkage increased from 1.5 mm to 2.8 mm. It implies that up to 30 %, the maximum crack the block could form is 2.8 mm, whereas the maximum allowable crack width for walling materials is 3.0 mm. Therefore, percentage replacement of up to 30 % is recommended for use in lateritic block.
In recent years, Kosovo has had a strong volatility in attracting foreign investment into the domestic market, which has been accompanied not only by the decline in FDI flows but also by the quality of investments. Kosovo has not been able to catch the trend of FDI absorption just as it takes place in an important part of developing economies; it is also failing to follow the success of neighbouring countries. The success of further development of Kosovo’s economy cannot be imagined without the strong presence of foreign-owned businesses as a guarantee that this goal will become objectively achievable. The aim of the study is to examine recent trends and characteristics of FDI flows and patterns in Kosovo. This study adopts a qualitative research method using secondary data taken mainly from Kosovo’s Central Bank and Business Registration Agency. The present study concludes that FDI in Kosovo is mainly oriented to the Real Estate, Rental and Business sectors. Moreover, the main FDI contributors are businesses from the EU countries and Turkey. A majority of FDI inflows in Kosovo have been predominantly dominated by five countries.
Based on EU guidelines and national development plans, energy efficient process management has been slowly implemented in Latvian regions in the context of the Directive 2012/27/EU putting forward two binding indicative national energy efficiency goals for Latvia: (1) to achieve 1.5 % of energy savings delivered to final consumers every year, and (2) to renovate 3 % of the state-owned buildings annually. The aim of the paper is to reflect the management system of energy efficient processes in public and residential buildings in Latvian littoral regions of the Baltic Sea, which can be an important factor for achieving the goals of the Directive. The paper presents the results of the research on energy efficient processes in public and residential buildings in Latvian littoral regions of the Baltic Sea in order to determine the existing challenges. Methods applied in the research are data collection, grouping, analysis and comparison, studies of regulatory documents, as well as statistical data collection and analysis. Contribution of the research is the improvement of energy efficient solutions in public and residential buildings in littoral regions of the Baltic Sea by using the estimated energy efficient processes. The results of the research are of international importance and can be applied not only in public and residential buildings in littoral regions of the Baltic Sea but also in other regions with similar climate or energy efficient process management problems in order to improve the selection of criteria of energy efficient solutions and renovation.
The aim of the research is to propose the method for forming an indicator of compactness of a populated population and to test it. The comparative analysis, structuring, geospatial modelling methods have been used in the research. Land use management and development regulation, which is carried out by urban planning documentation, is the spatial frame for sustainable territory development. Forming of quantitative and qualitative indicator system that characterises the level of urban development of a settlement is an overriding issue for state estimation of settlement development. Management decisions on land use management should be made taking into account the evaluation results. The compact form is an essential basis for the efficient and stable use of the settlement territorial resources. There is no single evaluation technique of settlement compactness; there are a variety of approaches and methods for the assessment of settlement form. The compactness level in this study is estimated by a system of indicators that attests to the multiplicity of land uses and the degree of accessibility to basic services and leisure facilities. The determining technique of component compactness has been tested in evaluating the planning structure of Kyiv. All planning quarters are rated according to a five-level rating scale. For each classification group, general recommendations have been developed to improve the land use system aimed at improving the compactness of the settlement. The results of compactness assessment can be used through geoinformation monitoring tools in the provision of administrative services as justification for managerial decision-making.