The prediction and design of photonic features have traditionally been guided by theory-driven computational methods, spanning a wide range of direct solvers and optimization techniques. Motivated by enormous advances in the field of machine learning, there has recently been a growing interest in developing complementary data-driven methods for photonics. Here, we demonstrate several predictive and generative data-driven approaches for the characterization and inverse design of photonic crystals. Concretely, we built a data set of 20,000 two-dimensional photonic crystal unit cells and their associated band structures, enabling the training of supervised learning models. Using these data set, we demonstrate a high-accuracy convolutional neural network for band structure prediction, with orders-of-magnitude speedup compared to conventional theory-driven solvers. Separately, we demonstrate an approach to high-throughput inverse design of photonic crystals via generative adversarial networks, with the design goal of substantial transverse-magnetic band gaps. Our work highlights photonic crystals as a natural application domain and test bed for the development of data-driven tools in photonics and the natural sciences.
Spintronics and Photonics constitute separately two disciplines of huge scientific and technological impact. Exploring their conceptual and practical overlap offers vast possibilities of research and a clear scope for the corresponding communities to merge and consider innovative ideas taking advantage of each other’s potentials. As an example, here we review the magnetic field modification of the optical response of photonic systems fabricated out of spintronic materials, or in which spintronic components are incorporated. This magnetic actuation is due to the Magneto Refractive Effect (MRE), which accounts for the change in the optical constants of a spintronic system due to the magnetic field induced modification of the electrical resistivity. Due to the direct implication of conduction electrons in this phenomenon, this change in the optical constants covers from the mid-infrared to the THz regime. After introducing the non-expert reader into the spintronic concepts relevant to this work, we then present the MRE exhibited by a variety of spintronic systems, and finally show the different applications of this property in the generation of active spintronic-photonic platforms.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product generated in the body and related to many pathophysiological processes and glucose metabolism disorder can cause many fatal diseases in living bodies. Therefore, the sensing of H2O2 and glucose is of great significance in disease diagnostics and treatment. Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) are one new class of nanoprobes for H2O2 and glucose. Nevertheless, the CD-based sensor is always based on its fluorescence response, which is influenced by the auto-fluorescent interference. Herein, efficient fluorescent CDs were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal method, and the CDs exhibit bright and persistent deep-red (DR) chemiluminescence (CL) in bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate and H2O2 solution with a CL quantum yield of (8.22 ± 0.30) × 10−3, which is amongst the highest values in ever reported nanomaterials for chemical analysis. Employing the CDs as CL nanoprobes, sensitive sensing for H2O2 has been achieved with a detection limit of 11.7 μM, and further for glucose detection with a detection limit of 12.6 μM. The DR CL CDs is promising to be applied in blood glucose analysis or in vivo biosensor.
Ultrathin metal films emerge as an innovative category of transparent electrodes in recent decades, holding great promises enabling the next-generation flexible organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Although metal thin films with polymer nucleation inducers have been extensively studied in OLEDs, satisfying the requirements of both superior optoelectrical and high optical outcoupling characteristics is still challenging. Here, we demonstrate a metal oxide/ultrathin Ag/polymer (MAP) composite electrode with low sheet resistance of 15.1 Ω/sq, high transmittance of 87.4% at 550 nm, and smooth morphology with surface roughness of 0.768 nm. Besides, the composite electrodes significantly enhance the outcoupling of the light trapped in OLEDs due to the relatively high-refractive index polymer. Flexible OLEDs with the MAP anodes exhibit over 2.3 times enhancement in efficiency to that of indium tin oxide (ITO)-based OLEDs. The flexible OLEDs can survive 1000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 8 mm with negligible decrease in electroluminescent performance.
On-chip nanophotonic devices are a class of devices capable of controlling light on a chip to realize performance advantages over ordinary building blocks of integrated photonics. These ultra-fast and low-power nanoscale optoelectronic devices are aimed at high-performance computing, chemical, and biological sensing technologies, energy-efficient lighting, environmental monitoring and more. They are increasingly becoming an attractive building block in a variety of systems, which is attributed to their unique features of large evanescent field, compactness, and most importantly their ability to be configured according to the required application. This review summarizes recent advances of integrated nanophotonic devices and their demonstrated applications, including but not limited to, mid-infrared and overtone spectroscopy, all-optical processing on a chip, logic gates on a chip, and cryptography on a chip. The reviewed devices open up a new chapter in on-chip nanophotonics and enable the application of optical waveguides in a variety of optical systems, thus are aimed at accelerating the transition of nanophotonics from academia to the industry.
Germanium phosphide (GeP), a rising star of novel two-dimensional (2D) material composed of Group IV–V elements, has been extensively studied and applied in photonics thanks to its broadband optical absorption, strong light–matter interaction and flexible bandgap structure. Here, we show the strong nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of 2D GeP nanoflakes in the broadband range with open-aperture Z-scan technique to explore the performance of 2D GeP microfiber photonic devices (GMPDs) in near-infrared (near-IR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) ultrafast photonics. Our results suggest that employing the GMPD as an optical device in an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) system results in ultrashort pulses and rogue waves (RWs) at 1.55 μm. Likewise, by the incorporation of GMPD into a thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) system, stable ultrashort pulse operation is also achieved at 2.0 μm. We expect these findings to be an excellent GMPD that can be applied in mode-locked fiber lasers to open up new avenues for its development and application in ultrafast photonics.
Finding the solution to a large category of optimization problems, known as the NP-hard class, requires an exponentially increasing solution time using conventional computers. Lately, there has been intense efforts to develop alternative computational methods capable of addressing such tasks. In this regard, spin Hamiltonians, which originally arose in describing exchange interactions in magnetic materials, have recently been pursued as a powerful computational tool. Along these lines, it has been shown that solving NP-hard problems can be effectively mapped into finding the ground state of certain types of classical spin models. Here, we show that arrays of metallic nanolasers provide an ultra-compact, on-chip platform capable of implementing spin models, including the classical Ising and XY Hamiltonians. Various regimes of behavior including ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, as well as geometric frustration are observed in these structures. Our work paves the way towards nanoscale spin-emulators that enable efficient modeling of large-scale complex networks.
Hybrid quantum photonics combines classical photonics with quantum emitters in a postprocessing step. It facilitates to link ideal quantum light sources to optimized photonic platforms. Optical cavities enable to harness the Purcell-effect boosting the device efficiency. Here, we postprocess a free-standing, crossed-waveguide photonic crystal cavity based on Si3N4 with SiV− center in nanodiamonds. We develop a routine that optimizes the overlap with the cavity electric field utilizing atomic force microscope (AFM) nanomanipulation to attain control of spatial and dipole alignment. Temperature tuning further gives access to the spectral emitter-cavity overlap. After a few optimization cycles, we resolve the fine-structure of individual SiV− centers and achieve a Purcell enhancement of more than 4 on individual optical transitions, meaning that four out of five spontaneously emitted photons are channeled into the photonic device. Our work opens up new avenues to construct efficient quantum photonic devices.
Ultrafast and sensitive (noise equivalent power <1 nW Hz−1/2) light-detection in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (0.1–10 THz) and at room-temperature is key for applications such as time-resolved THz spectroscopy of gases, complex molecules and cold samples, imaging, metrology, ultra-high-speed data communications, coherent control of quantum systems, quantum optics and for capturing snapshots of ultrafast dynamics, in materials and devices, at the nanoscale. Here, we report room-temperature THz nano-receivers exploiting antenna-coupled graphene field effect transistors integrated with lithographically-patterned high-bandwidth (∼100 GHz) chips, operating with a combination of high speed (hundreds ps response time) and high sensitivity (noise equivalent power ≤120 pW Hz−1/2) at 3.4 THz. Remarkably, this is achieved with various antenna and transistor architectures (single-gate, dual-gate), whose operation frequency can be extended over the whole 0.1–10 THz range, thus paving the way for the design of ultrafast graphene arrays in the far infrared, opening concrete perspective for targeting the aforementioned applications.
In this paper, generation of optical vortices with time-varying orbital angular momentum (OAM) and topological charge is theoretically demonstrated based on time-modulated metasurfaces with a linearly azimuthal frequency gradient. The topological charge of such dynamic structured light beams is shown to continuously and periodically change with time evolution while possessing a linear dependence on time and azimuthal frequency offset. The temporal variation of OAM yields a self-torqued beam exhibiting a continuous angular acceleration of light. The phenomenon is attributed to the azimuthal phase gradient in space-time generated by virtue of the spatiotemporal coherent path in the interference between different frequencies. In order to numerically authenticate this newly introduced concept, a reflective dielectric metasurface is modelled consisting of silicon nanodisk heterostructures integrated with indium-tin-oxide and gate dielectric layers on top of a mirror-backed silicon slab which renders an electrically tunable guided mode resonance mirror in near-infrared regime. The metasurface is divided into several azimuthal sections wherein nanodisk heterostructures are interconnected via nanobars serving as biasing lines. Addressing azimuthal sections with radio-frequency biasing signals of different frequencies, the direct dynamic photonic transitions of leaky-guided modes are leveraged for realization of an azimuthal frequency gradient in the optical field. Generation of dynamic twisted light beams with time-varying OAM by the metasurface is verified via performing several numerical simulations. Moreover, the role of modulation waveform and frequency gradient on the temporal evolution and diversity of generated optical vortices is investigated which offer a robust electrical control over the number of dynamic beams and their degree of self-torque. Our results point toward a new class of structured light for time-division multiple access in optical and quantum communication systems as well as unprecedented optomechanical manipulation of objects.