This study aims to assess and quantify the economic value of coastal ecosystem services (CES) in the coastal areas of Jayapura City based on the perceptions of Papuan indigenous peoples. Data collection was conducted from March to April 2018 using the direct interview method based on questionnaires to 228 respondents in Enggros, Tobati, and Nafri villages. The CES value in Jayapura City is estimated to be around USD 5,427,212.34/year, which consists of service values of mangrove, coral reef, and seagrass ecosystems that are USD 4,447,802.85/year or USD 19,079.46/ha/year, USD 424,333.06/year or USD 11,303.49/ha/year, and USD 555,076.43/year or 5,008.36/ha/year, respectively. The value of CES as a provider of fishery products is quite high because of the high desire of the community to exploit and utilize natural resources such as fish, crabs, shrimp, and shellfish in coastal ecosystems to as a food resource. Therefore, with the description of the CES value in this study, good coastal ecosystem management and integrated coastal area development policies are needed to maintain the quality of the environment and the sustainability of coastal ecosystems, as well as efforts to increase public awareness of the importance of coastal ecosystems and the important role that they play in improving the welfare of the Papuan indigenous people.
The number of serious and extreme drought events is increasing, causing a serious threat to ecosystems, food security, livelihood security, social stability, and sustainable development. The Marathwada region of India is highly vulnerable to the impacts of drought and has been severely affected because of consecutive drought events from 2012 to 2016. This article aims to understand the rural farming household’s perceptions of the impacts of drought, their adaptation and mitigation measures, and also attempts to assess the level of satisfaction of rural households with government mitigation measures. This study is based on primary and secondary sources of data collected from 192 farming households following a structured questionnaire survey. The survey reveals that crop failure, livelihood insecurity, declines in livestock production, livestock loss, water conflicts, and problems in meeting agricultural expenses, increased school dropout rates of children, and both psychological and health problems, were the most immediate socio-economic impacts of drought. The various environmental impacts of drought perceived by farmers included depleted groundwater levels, poor groundwater quality, land degradation, a decrease in seasonal river flows, degradation of pastures and declines in soil fertility. It was found that small and medium sized farmers were highly affected by drought compared with marginal and large scale farmers because of their high dependency on agriculture and poor adaptation strategies.
Local community participation in wildlife conservation and management is known to have existed for many years. However, the socio-economic activities regarding community participation remain questionable. Incorporating the views of the local community in the process of decision-making and providing alternative livelihood solutions are important steps towards sustainable conservation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of community participation in sustainable wildlife management in Rungwa Game Reserve. A survey was conducted of the households in Rungwa and Mwamagembe villages with a sample size of 98 respondents. The study used a cross-sectional research design. Data were collected from different respondents at a single point in time. The main research methods used for data collection included: questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews, field observations, focus group discussions and a review of documents. Descriptive data were summarised and presented in frequency tables and charts. Content analysis was also used to determine relationships between the variables measured. The findings revealed both positive and negative effects of wildlife conservation and management. The results revealed that local communities provided confidential information pertaining to illegal activities. The findings further indicated that there was a failure of the game reserve authorities to allow meaningful local participation and equitable sharing of the benefits, which could be attributed to hatred, resentment, and illegal harvesting of natural resources from the game reserve, resulting in poor wildlife conservation. This study recommends the encouragement and a strengthening of the involvement of local communities in wildlife conservation for the sustainable utilisation of natural resources.
During the last few decades, many case studies have focused on landscape transformations in response to water erosion, human impact, and climate changes. This article presents a review and comparison of the current state of knowledge on conducted research on the impact of the activities of early humans on the relief and forms of loess areas in Poland based on the results of a variety of dating methods (OSL, TL, C14, 137Cs, palynology, dendrochronology etc.). The influence of land-use activity since the first permanent settlements (8,000–5,200 BP) played a major role in the development of certain sand sediment terrain forms: gullies, river terraces, the filling of isolated depressions and alluvial fans in the loess areas. As a result, a simplified scheme of landscape evolution was created along with a map of the most investigated areas by authors. The main problem was to differentiate the influence of anthropogenic factors from natural ones occurring either simultaneously or alternatively. The developed deposits form a geo-archive which has recorded the history of environmental changes. A detailed analysis of the sedimentary structures provides the possibility to reconstruct and understand past functional responses in natural systems. It is important to consider the impact of climate change and human influence over the course of history on a specific geomorphological system. This can help to predict future land changes and likely hazards.
As a result of studying the vegetation cover of artificial (possibly spontaneous) tree plantations on the hills of the right bank of the River Dnieper in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine we discovered the formation of natural populations of Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce. Information on the growth of this species was previously presented (more than 80 years ago) by F. Gryn (samples of which are in The National Herbarium of Ukraine, Kiev), who noted its distribution in these locations. The ecological and coenotic features of the distribution of this species as a part of available populations in the communities of classes Carpino-Fagetea sylvaticae, Quercetea pubescentis, Crataego-Prunetea, Alno glutinosae-Populetea albae have been studied. The largest eight new populations of C. damasonium have been identified on the eastern border of Ukraine. Habitat conditions, number and structure of all new populations were determined. Micropopulations of the species occupy an area from several to 750 m2 with a total population of more than 1,200 specimens. The ontogenetic spectrum is right-sided, with a dominance of generative individuals, and their share is 4/5 of the total number of individuals. The peculiarity of this locality is the high number of individuals in most of these populations, which may be due to favourable ecological-coenotic conditions and the absence of intensive anthropogenic influences. The identified habitats of the study species need protection.
This article presents research on the socio environmental impact of refugees on their host communities. We assessed the challenges of refuge populations to their host community in north western Tigray, Ethiopia, where the Eritrean refugees are settled,. Primary data was produced from semi-structured questionnaires and a random sampling technique deploying a logistic regression model to describe the relationship between the socio-environmental changes of the host community. Results suggested 96% of the sample respondents confirmed changes of tree species and forest coverage on community farms was observed during the study period. Similarly, change in forest coverage and changes in tree species are strongly and positively associated with the existence of refugees in the study communities. The dramatic change observed on forest coverage and tree species has led to a progressive decline in natural resources. The study concluded that unplanned human population influxes, especially refugee inflows, affected host communities negatively and the socio-environmental situation has been significantly changed in the study areas. The study highlights the need for holistic intervention to ameliorate the negative impacts and to maintain the sustainable management of natural resources so as to improve the socio-environmental impact of refugees on host communities.
Shallow clouds are a major source of uncertainty in climate predictions. Several different sources of the uncertainty are possible—e.g., from different models of shallow cloud behavior, which could produce differing predictions and ensemble spread within an ensemble of models, or from inherent, natural variability of shallow clouds. Here, the latter (inherent variability) is investigated, using a simple model of radiative statistical equilibrium, with oceanic and atmospheric boundary layer temperatures, To and Ta, and with moisture q and basic cloud processes. Stochastic variability is used to generate a statistical equilibrium with climate variability. The results show that the intrinsic variability of the climate is enhanced due to the presence of shallow clouds. In particular, the on-and-off switching of cloud formation and decay is a source of additional climate variability and uncertainty, beyond the variability of a cloud-free climate. Furthermore, a sharp transition in the mean climate occurs as environmental parameters are changed, and the sharp transition in the mean is also accompanied by a substantial enhancement of climate sensitivity and uncertainty. Two viewpoints of this behavior are described, based on bifurcations and phase transitions/statistical physics. The sharp regime transitions are associated with changes in several parameters, including cloud albedo and longwave absorptivity/carbon dioxide concentration, and the climate state transitions between a partially cloudy state and a state of full cloud cover like closed-cell stratocumulus clouds. Ideas of statistical physics can provide a conceptual perspective to link the climate state transitions, increased climate uncertainty, and other related behavior.