Modern measuring technologies give the means to perform tasks previously impossible with conventional methods. Their main advantages include reduced time consumption and higher measurement precision. Contemporary displacement and deformation studies of engineering structures often involve application of laser technologies, which are characterised by high precision of measurements. This article presents an analysis of results obtained from measurements of changes in the geometry of an engineering structure in which two complementary measuring technologies were used, i.e. tachymetric measurement with a Leica TDRA6000 laser station and laser scanning with a 3D FARO Focus S150 scanner. The utilised laser station enabled determination of 3D displacements in the local control point network installed on the studied structure as well as transfer of point clouds obtained from laser scans into a uniform coordinate system. The hybrid technology employed and the measurement method used ensured that the accuracy of the determined displacements and deformations of the structural components of the structure was high. The described measurement and result processing technology makes it possible to comprehensively analyse the geometric performance of structures, which consequently leads to the development of more complete conclusions concerning prevention of adverse effects of displacements and deformations in engineering structures.
Analyzing consistency of different land-cover data is significant to reasonably select land-cover data for regional development and resource survey. Existing consistency analysis of different datasets mainly focused on the phenomena of spatial consistency regional distribution or accuracy comparison to provide guidelines for choosing the land-cover data. However, few studies focused on the hidden inconsistency distribution rules of different datasets, which can provide guidelines not only for users to properly choose them but also for producers to improve their mapping strategies. Here, we zoned the Sindh province of Pakistan by the Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World as a case to analyze the inconsistency patterns of the following three datasets: GlobeLand30, FROM-GLC, and regional land cover (RLC). We found that the inconsistency of the three datasets was relatively low in areas having a dominant type and also showing homogeneity characteristics in remote sensing images. For example, cropland of the three datasets in the ecological zoning of Northwestern thorn scrub forests showed high consistency. In contrast, the inconsistency was high in areas with strong heterogeneity. For example, in the southeast of the Thar desert ecological zone where cropland, grassland, shrubland, and bareland were interleaved and the surface cover complexity was relatively high, the inconsistency of the three datasets was relatively high. We also found that definitions of some types in different classification systems are different, which also increased the inconsistency. For example, the definitions of grassland and bareland in GlobeLand30 and RLC were different, which seriously affects the consistency of these datasets. Hence, producers can use the existing land-cover products as reference in ecological zones with dominant types and strong homogeneity. It is necessary to pay more attention on ecological zoning with complex land types and strong heterogeneity. An effective way is standardizing the definitions of complex land types, such as forest, shrubland, and grassland in these areas.
This article presents in detail the methodology dedicated strictly to loess mineralogical investigation by automated mineralogy system QEMSCAN® (quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), which couples SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to automatically deliver mineral and phase mapping. The present study provides guidelines for further loess investigation in Poland, in order to maintain the complete comparability of results which will be obtained. The methodology is then used to obtain the data on complex mineralogical composition (heavy, light, transparent and opaque phases). In total 1,159,107 particles have been measured for five bulk loess samples and 4–6% of them were heavy minerals (c.a. 10,000 per sample). The bulk samples are dominated by quartz (57.3–62.9%) and contain plagioclase (7.8–9.2%), K-feldspar (7.9–8.7%), carbonates (5.0–7.8%), muscovite (3.2–6.2%), biotite (4.2–7.5%), heavy minerals (4.3–5.8%) and clay minerals (0.9–1.6%). The heavy minerals (as a group recalculated to 100%) are mainly represented by phases such as clinopyroxene (38–51%), garnets (14–21%), TiO2 polymorphs (8–12%), Al2SiO5 polymorphs (3–7%), ilmenite (3–6%), iron oxides, e.g., hematite and magnetite (2–5%) and zircon (∼2%). Nearly 50% of the heavy minerals is classified in the 16–31 µm fraction, which determine the changes in the current research procedure traditionally used for Polish loess.
Virtual resolution enhancement (VRE) is a new poststack cosmetic tool that can be applied to different types of seismic data. VRE emphasizes major reflections, enhances temporal resolution of seismic events, and suppresses reverberation noise, leading to better visualization of the entire seismic data. VRE is based on simple mathematical rule, and its parameters can be tweaked to suite the vast variety of seismic data available today. Although VRE does not reveal new or hidden features on seismic section, it significantly enhances the existing ones, which improves the interpretation and assists automatic horizon picking process. The only disadvantage of VRE is the long computational time. However, given the giant advances in the computational power and speed expected in the near future, this problem should be negligible. Tests conducted on seismic sections, collected from different regions in the world and went through different data acquisition and processing routines, prove the effectiveness of the VRE procedure.
A seismic wave is released when there is sudden displacement on a fault plane. The passage of this wave along the fault plane or within the lithosphere could result in ground shaking or vibration at the surface of the Earth. To provide a geophysical explanation to this phenomenon, the high-resolution aeromagnetic data of the sedimentary terrain and part of the Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria were processed and interpreted to provide fault architecture of the area, which could serve as conduit for the passage of seismic energy in the study area. High-resolution aeromagnetic data along the Lagos–Ore axis are processed for fault mapping in the study area. The reduced-to-equator (RTE) residual aeromagnetic data used were enhanced using the total horizontal derivative (THD) and upward continuation (UC) filtering techniques on Oasis Montaj 6.4.2 (HJ) software. The resultant maps were overlaid and compared with the plotted RTE residual maps for relevant interpretations. Varying signatures of magnetic anomalies are grouped into high (57.9–89.1 nT), intermediate (38.2–57.9 nT), and low (4.0–38.2 nT) magnetic intensities, which are associated with contracting basement rocks features. The obtained lineaments from the THD reveal areas of various deformations such as brittle, which is associated with faults/fractures, and ductile deformation, which is associated with folds of geological features. The faults, as depict by the UC map, reveal different depth ranges of 500–2250 m at the western side and 1,500–1,250 m at the northwestern area of the study. Since it has been on record that September 11, 2009, earth tremor of magnitude 4.4, with the epicenter at Allada, Bennin Republic, 128 km west of Lagos, Nigeria occurred within the study area, it can be inferred that the established geologic fault architecture could be responsible for the hazard and be part or synthetic to the Ifewara-Zungeru fault in Nigeria.
The main reservoir in Huizhou sub-basin is Zhujiang Formation of early Miocene age. The petrophysical analysis shows that the Zhujiang Formation contains thin carbonate intervals, which have good hydrocarbon potential. However, the accurate interpretation of thin carbonate intervals is always challenging as conventional seismic interpretation techniques do not provide much success in such cases. In this study, well logs, three-layer forward amplitude versus offset (AVO) model and the wedge model are integrated to analyze the effect of tuning thickness on AVO responses. It is observed that zones having a thickness greater than or equal to 15 m can be delineated with seismic data having a dominant frequency of more than 45 Hz. The results are also successfully verified by analyzing AVO attributes, i.e., intercept and gradient. The study will be helpful to enhance the characterization of thin reservoir intervals and minimize the risk of exploration in the Huizhou sub-basin, China.
Low-frequency resistivity logging plays an important role in the field of petroleum exploration, but the complex resistivity spectrum of rock also contains a large amount of information about reservoir parameters. The complex resistivity spectra of 15 natural sandstone cores from western China, with different water saturations, were measured with an impedance analyzer. The pore space of each core was saturated with NaCl solution, and measurements were collected at a frequency range of 40–15 MHz. The results showed a linear relationship between the real resistivity at 1 kHz and the maximum values of imaginary resistivity for each core with different water saturations. The slopes of the linear best-fit lines had good linear relationships with the porosity and the permeability of cores. Based on this, a permeability estimation model was proposed and tested. In addition, the maxima of imaginary resistivity had power exponential relationships with the porosity and the water saturation of the cores. A saturation evaluation model based on the maxima of imaginary resistivity was established by imitating Archie’s formula. The new models were found to be feasible for determining the permeability and saturation of sandstone based on complex resistivity spectrum measurements. These models advance the application of complex resistivity spectrum in petrophysics.
The borehole electrical imaging log offers general visual borehole wall, leaving no doubt that the conductivity contrast is sufficient to obtain a qualitative gain-size distribution of rocks. In this study, an automatic grain-size classification method is proposed using gray values of borehole electrical images from Baikouquan Formation in Mahu Depression. The first stage is comparing electrical images with cores. Gravels, sands, silts and clays are all discovered in the cores. The gravels are “mottled” in electrical images, and the bigger the spots, the coarser the gravels. The images of sands are homogeneous bright colored, and the coarser the sandy grains, the brighter the images. The electrical images of silts and clays are homogeneous brown and dark-brown colored. The second stage is auto-discriminating four categories of grain sizes roughly using averages and variances of gray values. The variances of gray values of gravels are high, whereas those of sands are medium. The gray averages of silts are between 160 and 220, whereas those of clays are larger than 200. The third stage is auto-classifying three kinds of gravels or sands finely using frequency distribution of gray values. The gray values of frequency peaks of cobbles are less than 50 and frequencies are larger than 15%, whereas those of pebbles are less than 50 or larger than 200 and frequencies are between 10% and 20%; almost gray frequencies of granules are less than 10%. The dominated gray values of coarse sandstones, medium sandstones and fine sandstones are less than 50, between 50 and 160 and ranged from 160 to 240, respectively. The proposed method is demonstrated to be useful and fast to auto-classify grain size of various rocks in conglomeratic environments.
The investigation focused on the non-migrating mid-channel bars that emerged in the river channel as a consequence of river engineering. A reach of around 280 km of Middle Vistula River (Poland) was taken into account as the study site. The most vivid examples of the river engineering works potentially influencing the river channel are the ferry crossings. Along the Middle Vistula River reach, there are 17 ferry crossings that were constructed from 1970s to 1990s. A cartographic analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the ferry crossing construction over the river channel. It was performed on the basis of aerial photographs (traditional aerial photography and UAV photography). In 3 out of 17 potential localizations, the emergence of large non-migrating mid-channel bars was observed. A study of cartographic materials (from 1950s to 2000s) allowed determination of the dynamics of those bars, including time of emergence and the changes of their size.
Tillage and slope will influence soil surface roughness that changes during rainfall events. This study tests this effect under controlled conditions quantified by geostatistical and fractal indices. When four commonly adopted tillage practices, namely, artificial backhoe (AB), artificial digging (AD), contour tillage (CT), and linear slope (CK), were prepared on soil surfaces at 2 × 1 × 0.5 m soil pans at 5°, 10°, or 20° slope gradients, artificial rainfall with an intensity of 60 or 90 mm h−1 was applied to it. Measurements of the difference in elevation points of the surface profiles were taken before rainfall and after rainfall events for sheet erosion. Tillage practices had a relationship with fractal indices that the surface treated with CT exhibited the biggest fractal dimension D value, followed by the surfaces AD, AB, and CK. Surfaces under a stronger rainfall tended to have a greater D value. Tillage treatments affected anisotropy differently and the surface CT had the strongest effect on anisotropy, followed by the surfaces AD, AB, and CK. A steeper surface would have less effect on anisotropy. Since the surface CT had the strongest effect on spatial variability or the weakest spatial autocorrelation, it had the smallest effect on runoff and sediment yield. Therefore, tillage CT could make a better tillage practice of conserving water and soil. Simultaneously, changes in semivariogram and fractal parameters for surface roughness were examined and evaluated. Fractal parameter – crossover length l – is more sensitive than fractal dimension D to rainfall action to describe vertical differences in soil surface roughness evolution.