This paper focuses on the review of electrical geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity and induced polarization as a technique for mineral exploration. It highlights the general fundamental principles of the electrical methods and result from other investigations. Most rock – forming minerals are insulators, and electrical current is carried through rocks mainly by the passage of ions in pore waters. In light of this, most rocks conduct electricity by electrolytic rather than electronic processes. Since metals and most metallic sulphides conduct electricity efficiently by the flow of electrons, electrical method is efficient and important in environmental investigation especially in areas where metallic objects are the targets and also in the search for sulphide ores. The results from various research showed the applicability of these geophysical ground methods, specially the Induce Polarization method, as a support tool in the identification and selection of exploration targets for test drilling.
The Oligocene-Early Miocene Nari Formation is widely distributed in the Kirthar thrust-fold belt. The formation in the study area is mainly consist of sandstone and shale. Field observations and detailed petrographic study reveal that these sandstones are mostly fine to medium grained, subangular to subrounded and poorly to moderately sorted. Detrital grains are dominantly quartz ranging in proportion 36-76%, feldspar 7-17% and lithic grains 1-13%, reflecting that these sandstones are compositionally submature. Quartz is mostly monocrystalline with some polycrystalline grains. Feldspar is dominantly plagioclase (albite) with some alkali feldspar (orthoclase and microcline). Lithic fragments are siltstone, mudstone and chert. Biotite and muscovite are present as accessory minerals. Heavy minerals such as apatite, tourmaline, and zircon are present in trace amount. The QFL diagrams show that the sandstones of the Nari formation are subarkose and lithic subarkose. The QtFL, QmFLt ternary diagrams and paleocurrent direction suggest that the sediments were transported from the Indian shield exposed to the northeast of the Nari Basin.
Energy crises is the one of the major problem that was faced by Pakistan in order to overcome on that crises Pakistan need to be developed and improvement in energy sector, Throughout in the country the demand of water and power increasing day by day therefore hydropower project are the need of the hour in Pakistan. Before initiation of any project EIA play important role in evaluating the nature of the project on different factors. Government of Pakistan planned one of the mega hydropower project diamer basha dam was planned in Gilgit Baltistan. It was intended to conduct the research work on describing significant factors so as to evaluate the influence of the project on them and develop guidelines for environmental assessment for these factors. To find out these significant factors the methodology was adapted to conducting field investigation. Besides to assess the relevant impact questionnaires were developed. Finally, in order to reduce the negative impact of the project on the predefine factor mitigation measure was suggested. It is anticipated that this study work support in developing structure work to be executed as mitigation measures and boost the advantages of the project.
This study presents the estimated remaining quantity of overburden material (topsoil, completely to highly weathered rock) and remaining geological reserve at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching after the quarry has been operated for years. Desktop study including literature search was carried out prior field investigation. Three boreholes together with latest topographical and detail survey was conducted to obtain the latest data at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching. Based on this Geological Reconciliation Study, the estimated total remaining geological rock reserve is 40,022,767 metric tons, and the weathered rock and top soil are 2,159,688 BCM and 1,247,697 BCM respectively. The assumptions that are taken into consideration are top soil thickness of 11m, weathered rock thickness of 15m and rock density of 2.64 mt/m3.
Integrated well dataset and seismics delineated the PGS field onshore Niger Delta for reservoir identification. Gamma ray, resistivity, Neutron and density Logs identified four lithologies: sandstone, shaly sandstone, shaly sand and shale. They consist of sand-shale intercalation with the traces of shale sometimes found within the sand Formation. Petrophysical parameters of the reservoirs showed varying degree of lower density, low gamma ray, high porosity and resistivity response with prolific hydrocarbon reservoir G due to its shale volume and the clean sand mapped as a probable hydrocarbon reservoir. 3D seismic data located both seismic scale and sub-seismic scale structural and stratigraphic elements. Risk reduction in dry hole drilling due fault missing in conventional seismic attribute analysis and interpretation, have to be integrated into the Oil companies standard practice.
The Gwal mélange is mapped on a large scale and is divided into the lithological units such as ultramafic, mafic, volcanic, volcanoclastic rocks, pelagic sediments and ophicarbonates. Petrographically, the mapped rocks are classified as harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite, serpentinite, gabbro, basalt, and andesite. These rocks are quite deformed and altered into the secondary minerals. Harzburgite is a layered mantle peridotite consists of olivine and orthopyroxene while dunite lacks the presence of any pyroxene. Serpentinite is the secondary product after peridotite is the product of post magmatic stages. The mesh structure is usually observed when olivine is completely altered to serpentine. The volcanic rocks are structurally sheeted and pillow type while the volcanoclastic rocks are essentially hyaloclastites associated with pelagic sediments. The Ophicarbonate is composed of serpentinite fragments and carbonate minerals, most probably calcite. Minor to trace amounts of opaque minerals are also present in association with major components. The gabbros may be a fragment of the main crustal rocks and have been formed in a magma chamber by fraction crystallization. The origin of ophicarbonate may be due to gas seeps originated by mantle or as the surficial process where ultramafic rocks and carbonates are mixed through processes of gravity, tectonic crushing and sedimentary reworking. The Gwal mélange may the southern extension of Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The mantle peridotite of the mélange is much like that of the Khanozai peridotite and may represent its detached blocks. Volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks may be the representatives of the uppermost part of ophiolite crust which might have trimmed off from subducting slab and are, now, part of the Gwal accretionary wedge. The mélange may have tectonically emplacement over the Indian platform sediments along with overlying the ophiolite sheet during the Late Cretaceous.
The predominant culture of Sabah consists of a motley of cultures, each of which has been brought in by the different ethnic groups from their indigenous cultures. The total population of Sabah consists of more than thirty different ethnicities and races, and the number of languages and dialects go over eighty. Hence the cultural tourism in Sabah would have varied criteria that can be looked into. The aim of this paper is to use the scoring model in operational research to rank these decision criteria according to highest scores. The preferability of tourist visiting these hot spots is done by ranking their preferability based on a weightage. Highly scored attraction factors would attract more tourists to visit cultural spots in Kota Kinabalu. Therefore, these would help operational managers in the tourism industry to focus on promoting and marketing this sector.
Water is indispensable for human life and without water, life cannot exist on earth. Every person required 33 to 35-gallon water per day for drinking and demotic purpose. But due to lack of quality, inefficient water supply designs, intermixing of sewage water and unlined sewage water system, quality of water is deteriorated specially in recent decades and affecting a number of people. In present study, it was inevitable to design a water supply system for selected area to provide safe water supply design for a small community. For this purpose, a study area was selected named as chak.no. 253 RB, Samundri Road Faisalabad. The existing water supply system of the village was built 30 years ago with the problems of leaky pipes, mixing of sewerage water with drinking water was causing water-borne diseases like Diarrhea, Cholera, Giardiasis, Typhoid fever, Schistosomiasis. A computer software abbreviated as EPANET (Environment protection agency network) was used to design a water supply system of the area providing input parameters to the software. For this a profiling survey was conducted to determine the length of pipes and the elevation of each junction. The other input parameters such as the diameter of pipes, pipe network map, head losses were provided. Conclusively, EPANET gave a detailed water supply system plan for specific design period. By adopting this design provided by detailed surveys of the area and EPANET will help to control intermixing of sewage water which ultimately improves the quality of water. The new design is based on technology by using modern techniques (Software). It will provide save and continue supply of water to community. It will also reduce the cost of water billing, leakage, decrease the diseases rate and improve the life standard of people’s lives in that area.
The Zhob Ophiolite is divided into three detached blocks including the Omzha block. The Omzha block is mapped and divided into lithological units such as ultramafic rock, mafic-felsic rock, and volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks. These units are quite deformed and mixed up and are associated with one another by thrust faults. Petrography and geochemistry divide them into gabbro, diorite, plagiogranite, pheno-tephrite and trachy-andesite basalt, trachy basalt, chert, limestone, and mudstone. The ultramafic rocks are dominantly serpentinized harzburgite, dunite, and a minor lherzolite. Petrography of peridotite shows that it may be depleted in nature and may have residual after processes such as partial melting and the melt-rock reaction of a lherzolitic source. The gabbroic rocks are less well-developed and highly deformed. They are cross-cut by diorite, plagiogranite and anorthosite’ intrusions. The gabbro may be the plutonic section of Omzha block’ crust while the intermediate-felsic igneous rocks may have formed by the anataxis of crustal gabbro. The volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks unit may be corrected with Bagh complex found underneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The metamorphic sole rocks of Omzha block are highly deformed and dismembered are comprising of metamorphic facies such as amphibolite, quartz-mica schist, and greenschist.