Nozzle hole diameter of 3D printer (3DP) can be varied to obtain required product quality as well as to reduce manufacturing times. The use of larger diameter may accelerate manufacturing times of products, yet the product quality, including the mechanical properties, still needs to be investigated profoundly. The purpose of this work is to investigate experimentally the effect of nozzle hole diameter of 3DP to the surface quality, accuracy, and the strength of the product. The specimens were manufactured by fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing using polylactic acid (PLA) as the filaments.Bed temperature, extruder temperature and printing speed were set to be 60∘C, 200∘C and 80 mm/s respectively. The thickness of each layer was set at the ratio of 20% to the nozzle hole diameter. Infill pattern was determined by using line type of 100%. Nozzle hole diameter of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6mmwas compared in thiswork. The results show that bigger nozzle hole diameter enhanced the density and tensile strength of the products thought it was not linearly correlation.
The optimal design of a subsoiler implement is a complex work that includes optimal design, material properties, structural reliability, random variables, soil properties, soil tillage equipment, and optimum safety measures. The main objectives of this study were to design and simulate the deep placement fertilizer applicator (DPFA) by using the finite element method (FEM). FEM simulation software was used to select the optimum material properties and improve the safety factor by considering a range of loads on DPFA. Three applied forces in a static simulation (4500, 5000 and 6000 N) were considered as were three application depths of fertilizers (0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 m), to improve the safety measures of the design. The simulation results showed that the best material property for DPFA is the AISI 4135 QT carbon steel materials. This yields a high strength of 780MPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 950 MPa (Young’s Modulus of 207 GPa and with Poisson’s Ratio of 0.33). The static simulation for 6000 N shows that the DPFA model had a maximum stress and strain of 379.9 MPa and 25.6×10−4 mm/mm respectively, with a contact pressure of 207 MPa, and a maximum displacement of 3.1 mm. The study results can provide theoretical and technical support for the development of agricultural tools, especially for DPFA in selecting optimum material properties and improving safety factors.
This research aims to develop an integrated information system for pharmaceutical companies in Indonesia, which has separate business units in two different locations. An Integrated System is needed to provide the value of competence in the technology and information systems that companies use in their business processes. The development stage starts from the assessment and understanding of the current situation both in the business environment and the IS/IT environment. The business environment includes the internal business environment and external business environment.Similarly, the IS/IT environment which includes internal and external IS/IT environments. With a deep understanding of current conditions, it can be determined the Information System(IS) strategy, Information Technology(IT) strategy and future IS/IT strategies. This study reveals the following results: The absence of good system integration with the business units involved makes the company in a weak position. But in terms of opportunity is quite high so that the use of technology and information systems that fit business needs is recommended in this study. The results of this study recommends some applications that can solve problems commonly experienced by companies such as system integration and business process automation to achieve more efficient and effective business processes.
Integration of domain expertise and uncertainty processing is increasingly important in automation solutions which rely on data analytics and artificial intelligence. We need a level to assess what is approximately correct. Uncertainties of the inputs are taken into account by using fuzzy numbers as the inputs of different fuzzy and parametric systems. Nonlinear scaling functions (NSFs) integrate these solutions and make them easier to tune. Fuzzy rule-based systems are represented with scaled fuzzy inputs. Membership functions (MFs) can be developed from NSFs and existing MFs can be used in developing NSFs. Fuzzy set systems and linguistic equation (LE) systems become consistent within the limits of detail. In recursive analysis, both meanings and interactions on all levels can be tuned together with genetic algorithms. In applications, the modular overall system consists of similar subsystems, which are normally used, with extensions to fuzzy. The compact fuzzy modules can be developed for specific tasks which are combined within Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). Uncertainty processing is embedded in the recursive analysis. The fuzzy extensions provide a feasible way for the sensitivity analysis of the solution.
The adaptive nature of algae results in producing unique chemical components that are gaining attention due to their efficiency in many fields and abundance. In this study, we screened the phytochemicals from the brown alga Hydroclathrus clathratus and tested its ability to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) extracellularly for the first time. Lastly, we investigated its biological activity against a variety of bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The biological efficacy of AgNPs was tested against eighteen different bacteria, including seven multidrug-resistant bacteria. Phytochemical screening of the alga revealed the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sugars, carboxylic acid derivatives, triterpenoids, steroids, and other components. Formed AgNPs were stable and ranged in size between 7 and 83 nm and presented a variety of shapes. Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and MDR A. baumannii were the most affected among the bacteria. The biofilm formation and development assay presented a noteworthy activity against MRSA, with an inhibition percentage of 99%. Acknowledging the future of nano-antibiotics encourages scientists to explore and enhance their potency, notably if they were obtained using green, rapid, and efficient methods.
Green synthesis of 3-(1-naphthyl), 4-methyl-3-(1-naphthyl) coumarins and 3-phenylcoumarins has been carried out in one step by reacting 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes and 2-hydroxyacetophenones with 1-naphthylacetic anhydride and phenylacetic anhydride, respectively, using dual-frequency ultrasonication, i.e. ultrasonic bath of 40 kHz and probe of 20 kHz. The compounds were obtained in very high yield (80–90%) and their structures were confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance data.
The current work described the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using the plant extract of Impatiens balsamina followed by evaluating their wound-healing potential. The formed NPs were studied by performing UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Further, both the thermal and excision wound models were used to understand the wound-healing ability of AuNPs. It is exhibited that at a concentration of 20 mg, the AuNPs exhibited substantial decrease in excision wound within 8 days. The obtained wound-healing results indicated that the AuNPs prepared from the leaf extract of I. balsamina exhibited active wound-healing potential when related to traditional drugs; hence, AuNPs could have future applications in the development of dressing materials in nursing care for wound healing after surgery.