Coronaviruses are extremely susceptible to genetic changes due to the characteristic features of the genome structure, life cycle and environmental pressure. Their remarkable variability means that they can infect many different species of animals and cause different disease symptoms. Moreover, in some situations, coronaviruses might be transmitted across species. Although they are commonly found in farm, companion and wild animals, causing clinical and sometimes serious signs resulting in significant economic losses, not all of them have been classified by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as hazardous and included on the list of notifiable diseases. Currently, only three diseases caused by coronaviruses are on the OIE list of notifiable terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases. However, none of these three entails any administrative measures. The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 infections that have caused the COVID-19 pandemic in humans has proved that the occurrence and variability of coronaviruses is highly underestimated in the animal reservoir and reminded us of the critical importance of the One Health approach. Therefore, domestic and wild animals should be intensively monitored, both to broaden our knowledge of the viruses circulating among them and to understand the mechanisms of the emergence of viruses of relevance to animal and human health.
Atrial fibrillation may potentially contribute to oxidative stress to a greater extent than chronic heart failure. The aim of the study was to compare the serum total antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant defence of dogs with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation with those of subjects with chronic heart failure and sinus rhythm and healthy controls.
Material and Methods
A total of 33 dogs were divided into three groups: dogs with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation (CHF + AF; n = 12), chronic heart failure and sinus rhythm (CHF + SR; n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 12). Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined.
SOD activity and serum TAC were significantly lower in the study groups than in control animals. Catalase activity was significantly higher and plasma GPx activity significantly lower in dogs with CHF + AF compared with the CHF + SR and control dogs.
The results suggest that chronic heart failure in dogs significantly impacts the serum TAC and the antioxidant enzymatic defence, while plasma GPx activity is markedly lower in dogs with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The role of that imbalance needs further investigation.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of the main pathotypes causing gastroenteritis, particularly in young immunocompromised hosts. The study reports the prevalence, characterisation, and molecular epidemiology of EPEC from piglets in northeastern India.
Material and Methods
A total of 457 faecal samples were collected, from which 1,286 E. coli strains were isolated and screened by PCR. The resultant EPEC strains were serotyped and phenotypically characterised for resistance against 15 antimicrobials. Also, the phylogenetic sequence was analysed for 11 selected strains.
A total of 42 strains (3.26%) belonged to atypical EPEC, of which, 15 (35.71%, and 2.29% of the 654 strains from this farm type) were isolated from organised and 27 (64.29%, and 4.27% of the 632 strains from this farm type) from unorganised farms; further, 5 (11.90% of the EPEC strains and 1.51% of the 330 strains from this breed) were isolated from the indigenous breeds and 37 (88.10%, and 3.87% of the 956 strains from this breed) from crossbred piglets. Serogroups O111 (11.9%) and O118 (7.14%) were the most prevalent of the 10 present. Sequence analysis of a length of the eaeA gene of 11 isolates of the region showed them to have 100% homology with each other and their identity ranged from 99.4% to 99.7% with GenBank reference sequences. All the EPEC isolates were multi-drug resistant, showing the highest resistance to amoxicillin (80.9%) and cephalexin (76.19%).
The study highlighted the association of EPEC with piglet’s diarrhoea in northeastern India. EPEC isolates belonged to many serotypes and phenotypically all were multi-drug resistant with close genetic homology.
The aim of the study was to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) of an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay for detection of myxoma virus (MYXV) in the classical form of myxomatosis and to compare its diagnostic performance to that of molecular methods (IAC-PCR, OIE PCR, and OIE real-time PCR).
Material and Methods
A panel of MYXV-positive samples of tissue homogenates with low (1 PCR unit – PCRU) and high (3,125 PCRU) virus levels and outbreak samples were used for method comparison studies. The validation parameters of the AGID assay were assessed using statistical methods.
The AGID attained DSe of 0.65 (CI95%: 0.53–0.76), DSp of 1.00 (CI95%: 0.40–1.00), and accuracy of 0.67 (CI95%: 0.55–0.76). The assay confirmed its diagnostic usefulness primarily for testing samples containing ≥3,125 PCRU of MYXV DNA. However, in the assaying of samples containing <3,125 PCRU of the virus there was a higher probability of getting false negative results, and only molecular methods showed a 100% sensitivity for samples with low (1 PCRU) virus concentration. The overall concordance of the results between AGID and IAC-PCR was fair (ĸ = 0.40). Full concordance of the results was observed for OIE PCR and OIE real-time PCR when control reference material was analysed.
Findings from this study suggest that AGID can be used with some limitations as a screening tool for detection of MYXV infections.
Coinfection of goose parvovirus (GPV) and duck circovirus (DuCV) occurs commonly in field cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS). However, whether there is synergism between the two viruses in replication and pathogenicity remains undetermined.
Material and Methods
We established a coinfection model of GPV and DuCV in Cherry Valley ducks. Tissue samples were examined histopathologically. The viral loads in tissues were detected by qPCR, and the distribution of the virus in tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Coinfection of GPV and DuCV significantly inhibited growth and development of ducks, and caused atrophy and pallor of the immune organs and necrosis of the liver. GPV and DuCV synergistically amplified pathogenicity in coinfected ducks. In the early stage of infection, viral loads of both pathogens in coinfected ducks were significantly lower than those in monoinfected ducks (P < 0.05). With the development of the infection process, GPV and DuCV loads in coinfected ducks were significantly higher than those in monoinfected ducks (P < 0.05). Extended viral distribution in the liver, kidney, duodenum, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius was consistent with the viral load increases in GPV and DuCV coinfected ducks.
These results indicate that GPV and DuCV synergistically potentiate their replication and pathogenicity in coinfected ducks.
Horses (Equus caballus) are susceptible to tick-borne diseases. Two of them, Lyme borreliosis due to Borrelia burgdorferi and granulocytic anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated in Algerian horses. The diseases have been less extensively studied in horses and results pertinent to Algeria have not been published.
Material and Methods
Blood samples were obtained from 128 horses. IgG antibodies directed against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and ELISA. The potential effects of age, gender, breed, and health status on seropositivity were also evaluated.
Using IFAT, 28 (21.8%) and 25 (19.5%) animals were positive for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. Using ELISA, 19 (14.8%) and 33 (25.9%) animals were positive for these bacteria.
The study shows that horses in Algeria are exposed or co-exposed to tick-transmitted zoonotic bacterial species.
Aim: We evaluated the association between anthropometric parameters and markers of insulin and leptin secretion/resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Material and methods: This post-hoc data analysis from a cross-sectional study included 176 T2DM patients. Laboratory tests (serum leptin, soluble form of leptin receptor (sObR), C peptide, glycemic and lipid parameters) and anthropometric parameters were obtained, adiposity indexes (including body adiposity index (BAI), visceral adiposity index (VAI)), indicators of insulin resistance, β-cell function, and leptin resistance (Free Leptin Index, FLI) were calculated.
Results: The body mass index (BMI), diabetes duration, VAI and leptin correlated independently with HOMA-IR, while BMI, diabetes duration and HbA1c with HOMA-B. The total body fat mass (TBFM), C peptide, diabetes duration, BMI and BAI correlated with leptin concentrations, while the first three with FLI. VAI was an indicator of insulin resistance (β=0.166, p=0.003), while BAI of leptin secretion (β=0.260, p=0.010). TBFM strongly associated with leptin resistance and secretion (β=0.037, r=0.688, p<0.0001, and β=0.521, r=0.667, p<0.0001), and BMI correlated weakly with insulin secretion and resistance. While insulin and leptin secretion increased progressively with BMI, leptin and insulin resistance became significant only in case of obesity. The sObR was significantly associated with C peptide concentrations (β=-0.032; p=0.044), but not with HOMA-B or -IR. A strong positive correlation between the C peptide/leptin ratio and non-fat mass /TBFM ratio was noted (r=0.62 [0.52, 0.71], p<0.0001).
Conclusions: Parameters of peripheral adiposity correlated better with markers of leptin system, and those of visceral adiposity with markers of insulin secretion/resistance. The sObR correlated independently and negatively with C peptide.