Behavioral changes that reduce the risk of predation in response to predator-derived odor cues are widespread among mammalian taxa and have received a great deal of attention. Although voles of the genus Microtus are staples in the diet of many mammalian predators, including domestic cats (Felis catus), there are no previous studies on vole space utilization and activity levels in response to odor cues from domestic cats. Therefore, the objective of our study was to investigate responses of adult prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) living in semi-natural habitats to odor cues from domestic cat excreta. Contrary to expectations, neither adult males or females showed significant changes in space use or willingness to enter traps in response to cat odors. One hypothesis to explain our results are that prairie voles have not co-evolved with domestic cats long enough to respond to their odors. Other possible explanations include whether levels of odors in the environment were sufficient to trigger a response or that the perceived risk of predation from odor cues alone did not outweigh relative costs of changing space use and activity levels. Future studies should consider multiple factors when determining what cues are sufficient to elicit antipredatory behavior.
Carduus acanthoides L (spiny plumeless thistle) a biannual wild species with 2n = 22 chromosomes was crossed with Helianthus annuus L. When crossing, pollen from C. acanthoides germinated and pollinated the stigmas of sunflower lines HA 89A after 48 h. The crossability rate was low, but seeds and hybrid plants were obtained. The F1 plants strongly resembled the cultivated sunflower with the most important bio-morphological characters, even though they had an intermediate type of heritability. The hybrid nature was confirmed by RAPD markers. The polymorphism between H. annuus, C. acanthoides, and their F1 hybrids was studied using RAPD. The result showed introgression of C. acanthoides in the hybrid progeny. It was established that the wild species carried Rf genes for the CMS PET-1. After self-pollination and sib-pollination of the F1 plants and back-crossing with cultivated sunflower, F2, BC1 and next generation hybrid progenies were obtained. The investigation encompassed the period 2000–2007 and 2014–2018. Some of the new lines have been included in a heterosis breeding program for developing hybrids for the sunflower market.
Field studies conducted in 2018–2019 in the northern Steppe of Ukraine with sunflower hybrids of different maturity groups (LG 50300, LG 5580, LG 5478, LG 5638, LG 5662) showed that the crop density of early-crop hybrid LG 50300 from 55,000 plants/hectare to 70,000 plants/hectare led to a decrease in productivity by 0.11 t ha−1 and a decrease in oil content by 0.9%. The density of middle-early hybrid LG 5580 resulted in a decrease in sowing productivity of 0.21 t ha−1, while oil content remained nearly the same. Another middle-early hybrid LG 5478 showed slight variations in productivity and oil content with an increase of crop density. The study of the mid-season hybrid LG 5038 showed a decrease in sowing productivity by 0.2 t ha−1 with the density up to 70,000 plants/hectare. Mid-season hybrid LG 5662 with density of 70,000 plants/hectare showed productivity increase by 0.14 t ha−1.
Seagrass conservation and management requires scientific understanding of spatial and temporal variability, information that is currently limited for the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Here, we analysed seagrass presence based on previous reports, herbarium collections and stakeholder knowledge, combined with field characterization in Golfo Dulce, southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Seagrasses were found at multiple locations along a narrow border close to shore and in up to 6 m depth within Golfo Dulce, dating back to 1969. Two seagrass species were found, Halophila baillonii and Halodule beaudettei. Seagrass biomass values for Golfo Dulce (12.0 ± 8.5 g DW m−2) were lower and water nutrient concentrations were higher than previously reported in the gulf. Shoot density (1513 ± 767 shoots m−2) was similar to previous reports. Stable isotope values in seagrass were −11.3 ± 1.0‰ δ13C and 1.2 ± 0.9‰ δ15N; while those in sediments were −26.1 ± 1.3 and 2.5 ± 0.9‰. In Golfo Dulce, isotopic values of both seagrass species do not overlap with other known primary producers. Management strategies should aim to minimize known seagrass stressors, protect potential seagrass habitat, and take into account the dynamic life strategies of the two seagrass species found.
Traditional kelp farming methods require a high amount of labor and are limited in geographic distribution – occurring mainly in nearshore, sheltered sites. To address growing global demand for sustainable biomass, the continued expansion of kelp cultivation will most likely have to move further offshore. Although many offshore cultivation trials have been done over the last 50 years, few were sufficiently robust to be viable in exposed and deep-water areas. In the North Atlantic Ocean, a Faroese company developed and tested a structural farm design that has survived in open-ocean conditions since 2010. The durable structure has withstood harsh weather events common in the Faroe Islands and thereby presents a potential strategy and method for moving kelp farming further offshore. This paper describes the primary challenges of offshore kelp farming and provides an overview of work previously done. Ultimately, the improved productivity, system survivability and scalability the MacroAlgal Cultivation Rig (Faroe Islands) and the BioArchitecture Lab cultivation grid (Chile) represent state-of-the-art and powerfully transformative strategies to pursue large-scale offshore farming to support mass production of kelp in the near future.
The employment of people with disabilities has multidimensional aspects - economic, social, legal, human rights, discrimination, psychological, ethical and responsibility aspects - with different actors involved representing various kinds of interests. The European Union Disability Action Plan and Strategy specifies the objective of promoting the employment of people with disabilities in the open labour market. The employment of such individuals is not only an economic issue, but also an issue of social inclusion, poverty reduction, equal opportunity and socially responsible employment. Effective and fair use of human resources for national economic development requires a variety of support mechanisms, including regulatory frameworks, the active involvement of local municipalities, and measures taken by state institutions. Because of the different issues and the various actors with different interests involved, an integrated way has to be considered to analyse the employment factors and employment opportunities for people with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to explore and substantiate the possible scenarios associated with promotion employment opportunities for people with disabilities in Latvia. The research methodology employed for this study is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, and expert interviews are used to analyse the interests of all involved parties, in order to determine the best possible scenarios as to how to stimulate employment for people with disabilities. As a result, three scenarios to promote the employment of people with disabilities were developed. Although the results showed slight differences between the three scenarios, experts believe that the optimal scenario for promoting the employment of people with disabilities is the one in which the EU participates.