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Eine diskurs- und soziolinguistische Analyse von Spracheinstellungen in internetbasierten Forendiskussionen

Summary

This is the second and final part of the analysis of Platonov’s work with regard to the idea of ‘immortality’. The first part has revealed that Platonov preferred ‘collective immortality’ thus rejecting the then-mainstream topos of ‘new man’. The second part deals with the stalinist trend to turn all ideas into ideologies: the topos of ‘new man’ as well as the concept of ‘collective immortality’. An analysis of several fictional texts shows that Platonov, while remaining true to his concept of ‘collective immortality’, resisted its ideologisation by tying his concept to characters who struggle for their individuation and yet recognize their relativity in the collective of all people.

Summary

The aim of this paper is to describe the submeanings of the prefix za- in its perfectivising function in Polish. The semantic meaning of this prefix deserves a reassessment given its high productivity in new, often colloquial verbal deri­vatives. In such derivatives, e. g. zagłosować ‘vote’, zawalczyć ‘struggle’ or zapozować ‘pose’, as well as in many other older verbs, the meaning of za- seems to be distinctly different from the traditionally assumed meanings: in­gressive, allative, hiding, covering or damaging (a discussion of previous analyses of za- is presented in Section 2). This article proposes a new meaning of Polish za-: the segmentative meaning (see Section 3.4). The object of this analysis is za- in purely aspectual pairs of verbs consisting of an unprefixed imperfective (ipf.) and a perfective (pf.) with za- (for the defini­tion of a purely aspectual pair of verbs and some modifications for motion verbs, see Sections 1 and 3.5). The paper is not concerned with Aktionsart meanings expressed by the prefix za- in lexical derivations from a simplex ipf. verb in which a pf. verb is paired with another derived imperfective. Such pairs of pf. and impf. verbs in za- are considered only as a background for the analysis of za- as a pure perfectiviser.

Abstract

This study deals with subject predicate agreement in Czech and the structure of a null subject. First, it introduces the concept of Null Subject Languages as it has been used in a generative framework. Then it shows the complex feature content of the Czech subject-predicate agreement morphology, arguing that the data repeatedly signal a division of the agreement features into two clear cut feature sets and two distinct agreement domains: (a) the lower, lexical domain inside vP containing the nominal n[±φ] feature set (Gender and N-Number), and (b) the higher, functional domain on the T head, which contains the functional D[±φ] feature set (Person and D-Number). The study relates the analysis to the present day microparametric concept of a Null Subject Parameter as in, e. g., the studies in Biberauer (2010), accepting the hypothesis of the checking of the subject-predicate agreement with two levels of predicate (separate heads v and T). It proposes that with pronominal subjects, the φ feature values can be re-set with respect to the speech act information located in the Aboutness Topic. Given the several levels of agreement, each of which can be licensed by a zero morpheme, the study proposes that pro is a complex entity consisting of two separate parts, each endowed with a distinct set of φ features.

Abstract

The following paper addresses the problem of the diachronic development of definiteness markers in Bulgarian as attested in literature. As the previous research focused on the postponed article as the main definiteness marker in present-day Bulgarian, our study compares its use with that of other markers, namely the long-form adjective and the adnominal demonstrative pronoun. The traditional view sees a steady convergence between the literary norm and the dialectal use of the article. To challenge this view, we observe the frequency of use of all definiteness markers on an empirical basis. Оur study uses a sample containing six versions of the hagiography of St Petka of Tarnovo, also known as St Parascheva of Epibates. The text for this study is provided by a historical corpus of pre-standardized Balkan Slavic literature, which is being constructed to enable us comparisons between the dialectal and diachronic data. The samples are chosen to minimalize the effects of genre, structure and content differences on the results. The frequency of individual types of definiteness markers in respective versions of the text shows that the development of the damaskini language was not only different in respect to dialectal developments in the area, but in some respects even contrary to them.

Summary

This paper aims to demonstrate that the development of Pre-Slavic clusters plosive + t/s in later Common Slavic followed the trajectory of spirantization and subsequent lenition and not the trajectory of gemination, contrary to the prevailing view.

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Summary

The paper describes and analyzes the occurrence and combinability of Czech syllabic liquids in words of foreign origin in order to find out whether and how they differ from native Czech words. The comparison relies on the material taken from the Phonological Corpus of Czech. The phonotactics of the native words is treated as the primary system that has been enriched by phonological properties of the loanwords. It is shown that the loanwords have extended the range of the occurrence of the syllabic liquids as well as the range of combinations of a consonant plus a syllabic liquid. Most of the newly imported combinations are instantiations of latently possible phonotactic patterns, but there are some genuine innovations with a potential to reshape the native phonotactics. Special attention is paid to English loanwords because they contain most of the phonotactic peculiarities.

Summary

It has often been claimed that the journalist Platonov reproduced the idea of ‘immortality’ which belonged to the soviet topos of ‘new man’ and that the poet Platonov contradicted the journalist by making this idea ridiculous. Such an overly complicated understanding of Platonov’s work can be replaced by a simpler explanation: An analysis of several of his texts shows that the young and the elder Platonov, the poet and the journalist were unanimously in favour of a certain concept of ‘immortality’, that simply did not fit into the then-mainstream topos of ‘new man’. This first part of the study explains how Platonov rejected the fantastic notion of ‘immortality’ that dominated the corresponding discussions in soviet intellectual life in the decade after 1917. The second part analyses Platonov’s relationship to the stalinist version of ‘new man’ and its specific variant of ‘immortality’.