The current study explored the second language acquisition (SLA) difficulties that 45 Syrian refugees and asylum seekers encountered in nine countries (Germany, Turkey, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, France, Malay, Austria, and Romania) that they fled to away from the ongoing war in Syria. The study also sought to elicit the solutions for these difficulties from the participants’ views. This research employed interviews and an open-ended questionnaire utilizing the Facebook Messenger application to gather data. The study builds on and broadens the scope of language acquisition research and questions main SLA theoretical underpinnings. The study found a variety of difficulties pertinent to economic, personal, social, linguistic, temporal, and psychological factors. The participants’ recommendations were classified into refugee-based, community-based, and authority-based ones.
While linguistic prejudice is commonly understood to concern individuals or social groups because of the way they speak, we can also see it as damaging language used about individuals or social groups. In this article, I start by looking at the traditional sociolinguistic understanding of linguistic prejudice, then go on to look rather widely at various forms of prejudicial/sexist language about women. In doing so, I identify various lexical asymmetries and associated “lexical gaps”. The main part of the article takes this further by exploring how certain insults to men draw on an understood prejudice again women. I illustrate this with a “telling case”: three naturally occurring examples of prejudicial, sexist language recently used by British prime minister Boris Johnson: big girl’s blouse, man up and girly swot. For all three to work, they draw on what we might call a discourse of “Women as ineffectual”. I conclude with a discussion of intentionality as regards this sort of prejudicial language use, what it is intended to achieve and how it can be resisted.
“The Language of Rhetorical Feminism, Anchored in Hope” honors contemporary expansions of rhetoric in terms of theory, practitioners, and practices. I’ve forged a new pathway that begins at the nexus of rhetoric, feminism, and hope, a juncture where the traditionally disregarded rhetorical practices and powers of so-called Others can be appreciated for their potency. Their purposeful resistant rhetorical praxes provide the constituent features of a theory I call “rhetorical feminism.” My hope is that the best parts of these rhetorical feminist praxes will meld with the best parts of rhetoric writ large.
In the present paper an attempt has been made to determine the mathematical model for the frequencies of occurrence of letters in the corpora, in the word types of the corpora and in the initial positions of words of the corpora while both the word tokens and word types have been taken into account. In the current study corpora written in American English have been used by the selection of the entities from ‘The Open American National Corpus (OANC)’.
This article presents an overview of the numeral system in Akebu, a Kwa language of Togo. The Akebu numeral system is a decimal one and contains simple numerals from ‘1’ to ‘9’ and decimal bases for ‘10’, ‘100’, and ‘1,000’. The former have noun class agreement markers, while the latter do not. Only some noun classes are compatible with numerals, but among them there are both plural and singular classes.
The present paper discusses language change from an information and systems theoretical point of view, taking on a diachronic perspective. It is argued that human language has to be regarded as a probabilistically organized information system in which synchronizations of linguistic systems of individuals create unstable (dynamic, ever-changing) collective levels (“language systems”). Therefore, probabilistic organization of language processing on an individual level leads – via bottom-up structure – to probabilistic organization of language systems as a whole. If we thus regard linguistic objects like e.g. a Saussurean sign as generally unstable and defined by probability distributions even from a synchronic point of view, we must understand language change (diachronic developments) as probabilistic as well. Therefore, language change in its “classical sense” (a change in linguistic objects) has to be reinterpreted as a change in probability distribution. Nevertheless, the term language change and its meaning then still lack exactness regarding some details; so we have to use this term carefully and be aware of its weaknesses. With a close look at language as an information system with both a synchronic as well as a diachronic dimension, we finally have to admit that language change is a scientific construct serving as a – sometimes quite useful – simplification within the linguistic field.