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Medizinische Beratung und Therapie genitalverstümmelter Mädchen und Frauen
Cranielle und Spinale Indikationen


Introduction. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide in high, low, and middle-income countries such as Indonesia. Obesity rate is higher in females in Indonesia. Obesity has important contribution in the occurrence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), body mass (BM), total body fat percentage (Fat%) and visceral fat (VF) are related to IR. This study aimed to investigate which of those measurements could be used as a better predictor of IR in non-menopausal Indonesian adult females.

Methods. Total of 80 non-menopausal Indonesian adult females ranging from 21 to 40 years were recruited in this study. Insulin resistance was measured by using Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) equation. Subjects with HOMA-IR index >75th percentile with cut-off 2.74 were defined as IR. Waist circumference, BMI and BM were measured, while TF and VF were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Results. HOMA-IR had significant correlation with WC (r = 0.563, p < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.537, p < 0.001), BM (r = 0.515, p < 0.001), VF (r = 0.515, p < 0.001), Fat% (r = 0.490, p < 0.001). The area under curve of VF (0.809), BMI (0.807), WC (0.805), and BM (0.799) are slightly larger than and Fat% (0.766).

Conclusion. Insulin resistance had strong correlation with all anthropometric measurements, but the correlation was less significant with Fat%.


Background and aims. The incidence of Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) is increasing worldwide, thus diagnosis is becoming a major key of interest in preventing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Because the status of BE in Romania is unclear, we performed a narrative review to comprehensively evaluate all published articles on BE from Romania.

Methods. We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed data base and of all Romanian medical journals. The abstracts and the titles of the identified studies were reviewed to exclude the studies that did not answer the search question. In addition we performed a manual search to identify articles on this topic published earlier in local journals or not indexed on internet.

Results. A total of 17 articles were found. 8 studies and 9 reviews were identified, with a total of 8,829 participants enrolled. The results showed that the median age ranges between 54–59 years, with a predominance for male sex, the main risk factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity, smoking, hiatal hernia, are also present in Romania and infection with H. pylori has a protective effect. The diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus in Romania is established in agreement with international guidelines.

Conclusions. There are not many publications on BE in Romania. However the data in this country are similar to those reported in other countries. The management is carried out according to standard guidelines. Diagnosing BE relies on endoscopic techniques and classification systems. Risk factors such as gastroesophageal reflux, hiatal hernia, obesity and Helicobacter pylori are considered in Romanian articles. More studies are welcome on this matter in our country.


Over the last 20 years, sport for development (SFD) has become an increasingly used tool to tackle education-related challenges around the world and has even become recognized by major international institutions such as the United Nations and the Commonwealth. In spite of this, evidence on the effectiveness of SFD programs on educational outcomes is limited. Through a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), this paper seeks to begin addressing this gap. Literature is included if it quantitatively examines the relationship between participation in a SFD program and educational outcomes, namely academic performance, school attendance, or attitudes and behaviors related to school. Results are then organized and presented according to these aforementioned areas. The identified literature paints a mixed picture of SFD’s impact on educational outcomes related to academic performance and school attendance, though the data related to improved attitude and behavior is more positive. Overall, the lack of research on this topic and the deficiencies in some of the identified studies do not allow for the conclusion that SFD generates positive education-related outcomes. This paper concludes by proposing potential solutions to address this gap in research.