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Medizinische Beratung und Therapie genitalverstümmelter Mädchen und Frauen

Abstract

Objectives

Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) may be associated with placental abnormalities including placenta previa, umbilical cord abnormalities, and placental abruption. Our study evaluates the relationship between ART and placental abnormalities compared with spontaneously conceived controls.

Methods

An IRB-approved cohort study was conducted including women who delivered between January 2013 and December 2018. We excluded delivery prior to 23 weeks and known fetal anomalies. Patients were matched with controls (2:1) for parity, age, and mode of delivery. Controls were women who had spontaneously conceived and delivered immediately preceding and following the index delivery. The primary outcome was placental abnormalities found on both antenatal ultrasound and pathology in ART gestations compared with spontaneously conceived gestations.

Results

There were 120 ART pregnancies and 240 matched control pregnancies identified. The groups were similar for parity, BMI, comorbidities, number of multiples, mode of delivery, and female newborns. The ART group had a higher maternal age (37.1 + 5 y vs. 30.0 + 5 y; p<0.001), greater preterm birth (29 vs. 6%; p<0.001), and lower BW (2,928 + 803 g vs. 3,273 + 586 g; p<0.001). The ART group had a higher incidence of placenta previa on ultrasound (4.0 vs. 0.4%, p=0.01), adherent placentas at delivery (3 vs. 0% p=0.014), placental abruption (2 vs. 0%; p=0.04), as well as an increased rate of velamentous cord insertion (12 vs. 3%, p<0.001) and marginal cord insertion (28 vs. 15%, p=0.002). ART demonstrated a two-fold likelihood of abnormal placental pathology.

Conclusions

ART is associated with increased rate of placental abnormalities, including abnormal umbilical cord insertion and increased rates of adherent placentation. This information may be beneficial in planning and surveillance in patients with ART pregnancies.

Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether there is a cut off value of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) associated with a higher risk of meningitis in suspected early onset sepsis (EOS) (onset birth to seven days of life).

Methods

A retrospective cohort study on neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit at McMaster Children’s Hospital from January 2010 to 2017 and had lumbar puncture (LP) and CRP for workup of EOS. Included subjects had either (a) non-traumatic LP or (b) traumatic LP with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction or gram stain or culture-positive or had received antimicrobials for 21 days. Excluded were CSF done for metabolic errors, before cytomegalovirus (CMV) treatment; from ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunts; missing data and contamination. Neonates were classified into definite and probable meningitis and on the range of CRP. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for CRP values; and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve.

Results

Out of 609 CSF samples, 184 were eligible (28 cases of definite or probable meningitis and 156 controls). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and AUROC were too low to be of clinical significance to predict meningitis in EOS.

Conclusions

Serum CRP values have poor discriminatory power to distinguish between subjects with and without meningitis, in symptomatic EOS.

Abstract

Objectives

Post-cesarean section scar diverticulum (PCSD) is a long-term sequela of cesarean section (CS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of PCSD scoring criteria, and also retrospectively investigate the efficacy and fertility of two different surgical methods in 304 patients with PCSD.

Methods

A total of 304 PCSD patients who underwent hysteroscopy or combined hysteroscopy and laparoscopy (referred to as laparoscopy) in our hospital from 2016 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative condition was analyzed by the PCSD scoring criteria and its influencing factors were explored. The efficacy, its influencing factors and pregnancy success rate of the two different surgical methods on PCSD was also analyzed after 6- and 12-months follow-up.

Results

PCSD was more severe (high score) in patients who experienced caesarean section with one of the following conditions: age >30 years old, without medical indications or retroflexed uterus. The postoperative efficacy of patients subjected to hysteroscopy or laparoscopy was 81.25 and 89.47% (after six months), and 79.53 and 87.50% (after 12 months), respectively. Hysteroscopic surgery was better for PCSD patients who had fewer CS and thicker residual muscle layer and worse for PCSD patients with a longer distance of incision defect to the end of the cervix. Postoperative fertilization showed that pregnancy success rate of patients subjected to hysteroscopy or laparoscopy was 56.2 and 50%, respectively.

Conclusions

The PCSD scoring is an effective method for assessing the severity of PCSD, and hysteroscopy and laparoscopy are effective modalities for PCSD. Hysteroscopy is also an option for patients with fertility needs.

Abstract

Objectives

Furcate cord insertion is a rare abnormality affecting approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Macroscopically, the umbilical vessels separate before reaching the placenta, lose their Wharton’s jelly, and insert at the placenta centrally, eccentrically, or marginally. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of furcate cord insertion more accurately, the pathological characteristics, and clinical outcomes.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of 132 cases of furcate insertion of the umbilical cord using the pathological database of the Charité University Hospital Berlin, Germany, between 1993 and 2016. This included 99 cases, including one termination of pregnancy within our institution and 33 cases from external hospitals. An analysis of the pathological features of the 132 cases and the perinatal outcome of the 98 cases within our institution were performed.

Results

Furcate cord insertion occurred in 0.16% pregnancies. Of the 132 cases, seven cases of intrauterine fetal deaths were observed. Three of those could be linked to the furcate cord insertion. In two of those cases, single umbilical vessel rupture was identified as the cause of fetal death.

Conclusions

In most cases of furcate cord insertion, the outcome is good; however, intrauterine fetal death occurs in approximately 1.02% of cases.

Abstract

The goal of perinatal medicine is to provide professionally responsible clinical management of the conditions and diagnoses of pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. The New York Declaration of the International Academy of Perinatal Medicine, “Women and children First – or Last?” was directed toward the ethical challenges of perinatal medicine in middle-income and low-income countries. The global COVID-19 pandemic presents common ethical challenges in all countries, independent of their national wealth. In this paper the World Association of Perinatal Medicine provides ethics-based guidance for professionally responsible advocacy for women and children first during the COVID-19 pandemic. We first present an ethical framework that explains ethical reasoning, clinically relevant ethical principles and professional virtues, and decision making with pregnant patients and parents. We then apply this ethical framework to evidence-based treatment and its improvement, planned home birth, ring-fencing obstetric services, attendance of spouse or partner at birth, and the responsible management of organizational resources. Perinatal physicians should focus on the mission of perinatal medicine to put women and children first and frame-shifting when necessary to put the lives and health of the population of patients served by a hospital first.

Abstract

Obejectives

Optimal cytoreductive surgery (CRS), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, is a major predictor of oncological outcome in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). It is not clear if a delayed start of adjuvant chemotherapy negatively impacts on the oncological outcome.

Methods

Prospective registry study on 75 patients treated with CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Adjuvant chemotherapy was started within 42 days in 41 patients (55%), later on in 34 patients (45%). Multivariate analyses of preoperative factors were done on survival outcome. Outcomes were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results

There was no difference in RFS after early introduction (median 35 months) vs. late introduction of chemotherapy (median 32 months), p = 0.17. Median OS in patients with late introduction of chemotherapy was 46 months and was not yet reached in early introduction group.

Conclusions

In this exploratory study in a small group of women with advanced EOC, starting adjuvant chemotherapy more than 6 weeks after CRS and HIPEC did not deteriorate significantly RFS or OS. Well-designed clinical studies are still needed to evaluate the interplay of HIPEC and the point of time of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in this indication.

Abstract

Objectives

The impact of insurance status on oncological outcome in patients undergoing cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is poorly understood.

Methods

Retrospective study on 31 patients having undergone 36 CRS-HIPEC at a single institution (safety-net hospital) between 2012 and 2018. Patients were categorized as insured or underinsured. Demographics and perioperative events were compared. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS).

Results

A total of 20 patients were underinsured and 11 were insured. There were less gynecologic malignancies in the underinsured (p=0.02). On univariate analysis, factors linked to poor survival included gastrointestinal (p=0.01) and gynecologic malignancies (p=0.046), treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p=0.03), CC1 (p=0.02), abdominal wall resection (p=0.01) and Clavien–Dindo 3-4 (p=0.01). Treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and abdominal wall resections, but not insurance status, were independently associated with OS (p=0.01, p=0.02 respectively). However, at the end of follow-up, six patients were alive in the insured group vs. zero in the underinsured group.

Conclusions

In this small, exploratory study, there was no statistical difference in OS between insured and underinsured patients after CRS-HIPEC. However, long-term survivors were observed only in the insured group.

Abstract

An issue of the novel coronavirus infection spreading is currently in the first place among others in the list of the international medical community. Due to lack of information, conflicting research findings, multicomponent effect of the virus on the body host, as well as various consequences that the virus triggers in the body, now every medical specialty does study the viral attack pathogenesis. Recent months showed that vascular complications are the most severe in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are the main cause of death in the patients. The mechanisms of vascular complications are complex and affect both the hemostatic system and immune responses, “inflammatory storm”, disorders of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endotheliopathy, etc.

Due to the leading role of vascular complications in the viral infection pathogenesis, several groups of patients are at extra risk, including pregnant women, patients with a burdened obstetric history, with hereditary thrombophilia and antiphospholipid syndrome, and patients after in vitro fertilization (IVF). In this category of pregnant women, use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) is particularly important for both prevention of vascular and obstetric complications, and for pathogenetic therapy of COVID-19.