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Abstract

Objectives

The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) Network is designed to elucidate and track causes of under-5 child mortality and stillbirth in multiple sites in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using advanced surveillance, laboratory and pathology methods. Expert panels provide an arguable gold standard determination of underlying cause of death (CoD) on a subset of child deaths, in part through examining tissue obtained via minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) procedures. We consider estimating a population-level distribution of CoDs based on this sparse but precise data, in conjunction with data on subgrouping characteristics that are measured on the broader population of cases and are potentially associated with selection for MITS and with cause-specific mortality.

Methods

We illustrate how estimation of each underlying CoD proportion using all available data can be addressed equivalently in terms of a Horvitz-Thompson adjustment or a direct standardization, uncovering insights relevant to the designation of appropriate subgroups to adjust for non-representative sampling. Taking advantage of the functional form of the result when expressed as a multinomial distribution-based maximum likelihood estimator, we propose small-sample adjustments to Bayesian credible intervals based on Jeffreys or related weakly informative Dirichlet prior distributions.

Results

Our analyses of early data from CHAMPS sites in Kenya and Mozambique and accompanying simulation studies demonstrate the validity of the adjustment approach under attendant assumptions, together with marked performance improvements associated with the proposed adjusted Bayesian credible intervals.

Conclusions

Adjustment for non-representative sampling of those validated via gold standard diagnostic methods is a critical endeavor for epidemiologic studies like CHAMPS that seek extrapolation of CoD proportion estimates.

Abstract

Objectives

TikTok is a popular social media platform, especially among those who are 13–24 years of age. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe the content of COVID-19 material on TikTok.

Methods

A total of 100 videos posted under the hashtag #Coronavirus were included in this study along with all (n=17) posts uploaded by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Results

Overall, these videos were viewed 1,194,081,700 times. The most commonly cited topics included anxiety (14.5%) with more than 190.6 million views and quarantine (10.3%) with 106.6 million views. Fewer than 10% of videos mentioned how the virus is transmitted, symptoms, and prevention. WHO videos more often focused on viral transmission and symptoms but covered these topics in fewer than 10% of the videos.

Conclusions

Although research suggests that cases of COVID-19 may be less severe in those under 18 years of age, social distancing remains paramount due to the possibility of transmission even in those with minimal or no symptoms. For young adults in particular, the WHO suggests staying connected through social media and making every attempt to stay positive. TikTok has the potential, not only to convey important health information, but to address these aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic as well.

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the relationships between alexithymia, fibromyalgia (FM), and psychological distress among adolescents. Google Scholar and databases were searched using alexithymia, fibromyalgia, psychological distress, and adolescent keywords. Studies that examine the relationship between alexithymia and fibromyalgia and the contribution of psychological distress on this relationship among adolescents are lacking. However, based on previous studies on adult samples and theoretical background, there are possible relationship between alexithymia and fibromyalgia as well as possible mediating effect of psychological distress on this relationship in adolescents. Further studies are recommended to examine the relationships between alexithymia, fibromyalgia, and psychological distress among adolescents.

Abstract

Background

According to the fact that women make up half the population of each community and are considered as a family health center, exploring the factors promoting their quality of life and health must be prioritized.

Objective

This study aimed to understand the meaning of social support in young women's life.

Methods

Participants were 40 Iranian youth women who were selected by purposive sampling from the capital of Iran, Tehran. Interviews were carefully recorded and concurrent with data collection, analysis was done using conventional content analysis method. After securing the data saturation, interviews were finished and data were categorized by eight stages of zhang technique.

Results

From the interviews three main themes were identified: (i) financial support; (ii) informational support, and (iii) service-based social support.

Discussion

Awareness about aspects of social support in women' life could help health care providers and politicians in Iran to provide more effective programs to promote QOL and as a result total health of women.

Abstract

The relationship between hormonal contraceptive method use and sexually transmitted infections is not well understood. Studies that implement routine screening for STIs among different contraceptive users, such as the ASPIRE HIV-1 prevention trial, can be useful for identifying potential risk factors of STIs. However, the complex nature of non-random data can lead to challenges in estimation of associations for potential risk factors. In particular, if screening for the disease is not random (i. e. it is driven by symptoms or other clinical indicators), estimates of association can suffer from bias, often referred to as informative sampling bias. Time-varying predictors and potential stratification variables can further contribute to difficulty in obtaining unbiased estimates. In this paper, we estimate the association between time- varying contraceptive use and Sexually transmitted infections acquisition, in the presence of informative sampling, by extending the work Buzkova (2010). We use a two-step procedure to jointly model the non-random screening process and sexually transmitted infection risk. In the first step, inverse intensity rate ratios (IIRR) weights are estimated. In the second step, a weighted proportional rate model is fit to estimate the IIRR weighted hazard ratio. We apply the method to evaluate the relationship between hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted infections among women participating in a biomedical HIV-1 prevention trial. We compare our results using the proposed weighted method to those generated using conventional approaches that do not account for potential informative sampling bias or do not use the full potential of the data. Using the IIRR weighted approach we found depot medroxyprogesterone acetate users have a significantly decreased hazard of Trichomonas vaginalis acquisition compared to IUD users (hazard ratio: 0.44, 95% CI: (0.25, 0.83)), which is consistent with the literature. We did not find significant increased or decreased hazard of other STIs for hormonal contraceptive users compared to non-hormonal IUD users.

Abstract

Objective

This paper is establishing the relationship between the spreading dynamics of the Covid-19 pandemic in Morocco and the efficiency of the measures and actions taken by public authorities to contain it. The main objective is to predict the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Morocco and to estimate the time needed for its disappearance.

Methods

For these reasons, we have highlighted the role of mathematical models in understanding the transmission chain of this virus as well as its future evolution. Then we used the SIR epidemiological model, which proves to be well suited to address this issue. It shows that identification of the key parameters of this pandemic, such as the probability of transmission, should help to adequately explain its behaviour and make it easier to predict its progress.

Results

As a result, the measures and actions taken by the public authorities in Morocco allowed to record lower number of virus reproduction than many countries.

Conclusion

So, in the case of Morocco, we were able to predict that the Covid-19 pandemic should disappear in a shorter time and without registering a larger number of infected individuals compared to other countries.

Abstract

Background

Taking selfies is spreading like a mania across the globe. It may positively or negatively affect the self-esteem of an individual.

Objective

The present study was undertaken to assess the proportion of medical undergraduates and teaching faculty involved in taking selfies, to compare the pattern of selfie taking among medical undergraduates and teaching faculty and to assess the self-esteem score among them.

Subjects

The subject consisted of medical undergraduates and teaching faculty of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was carried out. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared. Self-esteem was assessed by using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Information obtained was analyzed using SPSS 11.5.

Results

The study included 366 participants of the study population. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale conclude that 96% of the faculty and 84% of the students have normal self-esteem. Around 52.73% of them agree that they find selfie taking can be addictive, 43.72% of them agree that selfie taking can have disastrous effects, sometimes even life threatening and 57.92% of them agree that they enjoy the habit of selfie taking and find entertainment in it.

Conclusion

It was found that most undergraduates and teaching faculty indulge in the act of selfie taking. Students tend to take selfies to share their current lifestyle, whereas faculty take selfies for convenience. It is found that selfies does not affect the self-esteem of an individual as the majority of the population were found to have normal self-esteem.

Abstract

Introduction

Changes in human growth and development depend on genetic and environmental factors. In the case of Slovenia, the environmental factors changed as a result of the period of socio-economic transition that the country underwent between 1991 and 2013. The authors used anthropometric techniques to evaluate differences in body height, proportions and sexual maturity in 1,221 adolescents aged 14 in 1993, 2003 and 2013.

Methods

Data was collected as a part of the ACDSi study, which has monitored children’s somatic growth and motor development every decade over the last 40 years.

Results

Between 1993 and 2013, a trend (p=0.08) towards increased body height was observed in males. The comparison of age at peak height velocity (PHV) between generations demonstrated a trend (p=0.07) of earlier entry into puberty in adolescents in 2013 compared to those in 1993. The leg-to-body height ratio increased (p<0.05) with every decade in males, while in females it decreased (p<0.05) in 2013. Similar trends were observed in the leg-to-trunk ratio. Contemporary generations experienced PHV at a younger age (p<0.05), which is true for both genders even in adolescents born no more than two decades (1993 (2013) apart. In both generations, females experienced PHV sooner than their male peers.

Conclusion

The authors assume that females of the 2013 generation reached puberty earlier than females of older generations. It is most likely that, unlike females from older generations and unlike males, they were already at the stage of trunk growth at the time of the measurements, which explains the observed changes in their trunk length, leg-to-body height and leg-to-trunk ratios in comparison to earlier generations.

Abstract

Introduction

Due to the availability of the EQ-5D-5L instrument official translation into Slovenian its use is widespread in Slovenia. However, the health profiles obtained in many studies cannot be ascribed their appropriate values as the EQ-5D-5L value set does not yet exist in Slovenia. Our aim was to estimate an interim EQ-5D-5L value set for Slovenia using the crosswalk methodology developed by the EuroQol Group on the basis of the EQ-5D-3L Slovenian TTO value set. Our secondary aim was to compare the interim values obtained with the EQ-5D-3L Slovenian values.

Methods

To obtain a Slovenian interim EQ-5D-5L value set, we applied the crosswalk methodology developed by the EuroQol Group to the Slovenian EQ-5D-3L TTO value set. We examined the differences between values by comparing the mean 3L and 5L value scores and the distribution of values across all respondents.

Results

By definition, 3-level and 5-level versions have the same range (from 1 to −0.495) and a health state coded 22222 in the 3-level version corresponds to 33333 in the 5-level version. While the addition of a “slight” severity level (22222) in the 5-level version has a low informational value, the addition of a “severe” health state (44444) covers larger range of the scale. The 5-level version results in fewer health states being valued below 0 and above 0.8.

Conclusion

The EQ-5D-5L value set, based on the crosswalk methodology, should be used until a value set for the EQ-5D-5L is derived from preferences elicited directly from a representative sample of the Slovenian general population.

Abstract

Introduction

The Slovenian Resolution on the National Healthcare Plan notes that the country’s medical laboratory activities are fragmented, which may result in cost-inefficiency and a reduction in the quality of the services provided. Defining the efficiency of laboratory service providers can therefore help us to pursue the objectives of the Resolution, i.e. to consolidate and integrate laboratory activities.

Methods

Using the DEA method, we conducted an analysis of the efficiency of 20 biomedical laboratories in Slovenia, and made a comparison with a “virtual” laboratory, i.e. a merger of laboratories within a selected organisational unit. By testing different DEA models, we sought to determine whether the use of different input variables caused significant differences in the laboratories’ efficiency scores.

Results

The research results show that inefficiency resulting from the size of the units is 1.5 times greater than process inefficiency. Using a non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, we determined, at a risk level of 0.05, that there was no difference between the efficiency results when using two different technical efficiency DEA models. When evaluating the virtually merged laboratory, we determined that, under all three models, the virtual laboratory achieved 100% VRS efficiency. However, when the CRS methodology was used, the laboratory showed a certain degree of scale inefficiency.

Conclusions

When evaluating merger of medical laboratories we note that the DEA method is methodologically suitable for evaluating the effects of health policy implementation, and is an appropriate tool for identifying where the field of laboratory medicine might be further developed and improved.