The biomedical materials that have been used in the structure of heart pumps are classified as biocompatible, and these can be metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites. Their positions in the pump vary according to the part’s function. Whereas various materials have different properties, all biomaterials chosen for cardiovascular applications should have excellent blood biocompatibility to reduce the likelihood of hemolysis and thrombosis. There are two major categories of the heart pumps; pulsatile and rotary blood pumps (axial and centrifugal) and the features of some of these materials allow them to be used in both. Rotary and pulsatile blood pump devices have to be fabricated from materials that do not result in adverse biological responses. The purpose of this review is to study the available biocompatible materials for the pulsatile and rotary blood pumps as clinically-approved materials and prototype heart pump materials. The current state of bio-compatible materials of rotary and pulsatile blood pump construction is presented. Some recent applications of surface amendment technology on the materials for heart assist devices were also reviewed for better understanding. The limitations of heart assist devices, and the future direction of artificial heart elements have been considered. This review will be considered as a comprehensive reference to rapidly understanding the necessary research in the field of biocompatible materials of pulsatile and blood rotary pumps.
The research is devoted to the problem of designing materials with an adjustable property of permeability. The obtained tool for property regulation allows achieving hyper-selectivity in relation to separation of helium isotope mixtures, as well as some other gas mixtures. The reasearch is theoretical in nature; however, it suggests a clear direction of activity for experimenters. The result obtained is valid for ultrathin barriers of any form. As a result, a new exact solution of the Schrödinger equation of wave dynamics, which is valid for the case of two-barrier systems, is found. This solution allows for comprehensive consideration of the process of wave passage through a barrier and identification of the causes leading to super-permeability of individual components.
In this study, Hardox 450 and HiTuf steels were boronized by pack-boriding method at 800, 900, and 1000∘C for 5 h. The phases, microstructure, hardness, and wear behavior of boride layers formed on the surface of samples were investigated using XRD, SEM, Micro-Vickers hardness testers, and a pin-on-disc tribotester, respectively. XRD analysis showed that both FeB and Fe2B phases were formed in the borided area of Hardox 450 steel, but only Fe2B phase occurred in the boride layer of the HiTuf steel. Micro-Vickers hardness results indicated that the hardness values of the boride layer decreased from the column-shaped structure to towards the matrix in both of Hardox 450 and HiTuf steels. Furthermore, the wear test results showed the coefficients of friction (COF) decreased significantly in the borided samples. The COF of the unborided Hardox 450 steel was reduced considerably from 0.29 to 0.02 by boriding treatment. Similarly, the COF of unborided HiTuf steel was significantly diminished from 0.16 to 0.04 by boriding treatment. In conclusion, the results of this study have indicated that the wear resistance of Hardox 450 and HiTuf steels can be improved by pack-boriding.
Bulk nanocrystalline graphite has been investigated as a possible candidate for piezoresistive sensors. The thin films were grown using capacitively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and a technological workflow for the transfer of the active material onto flexible substrates was established in order to use the material as a piezoresitive element. Preliminary electrical measurements under mechanical strain were performed in order to test the piezoresistive response of the material and promising GF values of 50 − 250 at 1% strain were obtained.
The paper discusses existing models used to estimate the thermal conductivity of the soil medium. The considerations are divided into three general sections. In the first section of the paper, we focus on the presentation of empirical models. Here, in the case of Johansen method, different relations for Kersten number are also presented. In the next part, theoretical models are considered. In the following part, selected models were used to predict measured thermal conductivities of coarse- and fine-grained soils, at different water contents. Based on these predictions as well as on the authors’ experience, a critical assessment of the existing models is provided. The remarks as well as advantages and disadvantages of those models are summarized in a tabular form. The latter is important from a practical point of view; based on the table content, one can simply choose a model that is suitable for the particular problem.
The method of unconventional solid rock loosening with undercutting anchors and the literature analysis of the problem are presented. The tests and test results of the rocks loosening process with a fixed undercutting anchor are described. The tests were carried out within the RODEST project, OPUS 10 competition No. 2015/19/B/ST10/02817, financed by the National Science Centre. Numerical modeling process as well as a series of laboratory and in situ tests were carried out. The test stand equipment and methodology for the in situ tests are presented. The tests were conducted in four mines, which allowed to obtain and determine the following characteristics:
loosening force as a function of anchoring depth (for a given type of rock),
the range of rock loosening in a function of anchoring depth (for a given type of rock), and
loosened rock volume as a function of anchoring depth (for a given type of rock).
The in situ test results are compared with the concrete capacity design (CCD) model used for the calculation of anchor load capacity in concrete.
In the present work, we study the rotations of the polarization of light propagating in right and left-handed films and layered structures. Through the use of complex values representing the rotations we analyze the transmission (Faraday effect) and reflections (Kerr effect) of light. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the complex angle of Faraday and Kerr rotations are odd and even functions for the refractive index n, respectively. In the thin film case with left-handed materials there are large resonant enhancements of the reflected Kerr angle that could be obtained experimentally. In the magnetic clock approach, used in the tunneling time problem, two characteristic time components are related to the real and imaginary portions of the complex Faraday rotation angle . The complex angle at the different propagation regimes through a finite stack of alternating right and left-handed materials is analyzed in detail. We found that, in spite of the fact that Re(θ) in the forbidden gap is almost zero, the Im(θ) changes drastically in both value and sign.
The design of shallow foundations on swelling soils needs a thorough study to evaluate the effect of swelling potential soil on the final foundation heave. For this reason, a simple analytical approach based on the soil stress state under the foundation can be used to calculate the foundation heave. This paper reports a set of analytical and numerical analysis using the finite-difference code (FLAC 3D), performed on an isolated shallow foundation founded on a swelling soil mass at N’Gaous city in Batna Province, Algeria, subjected to distributed vertical loads. Further, the influence of some parameters on total heave was analyzed, such as the embedded foundation and soil stiffness. The analysis results from the proposed 3D modelling was compared and discussed with analytical results. The numerical results obtained show a good agreement with the analytical solutions based on oedometer tests proposed in the literature, and deliver a satisfactory prediction of the heave of the shallow foundations.
In coastal regions, earthquakes caused severe damage to marine structures. Many researchers have conducted numerical investigations in order to understand the dynamic behavior of these structures. The most frequently used model in numerical calculations of soil is the linear-elastic perfectly plastic model with a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (MC model). It is recommended to use this model to represent a first-order approximation of soil behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to accommodate soil constitutive models for the specific geotechnical problems.
In this paper, three soil constitutive models with different accuracy were applied by using the two-dimensional finite element software PLAXIS to study the behavior of pile-supported wharf embedded in rock dike, under the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. These models are: a linear-elastic perfectly plastic model (MC model), an elastoplastic model with isotropic hardening (HS model), and the Hardening Soil model with an extension to the small-strain stiffness (HSS model).
A typical pile-supported wharf structure with batter piles from the western United States ports was selected to perform the study. The wharf included cut-slope (sliver) rock dike configuration, which is constituted by a thin layer of rockfill overlaid by a slope of loose sand. The foundation soil and the backfill soil behind the wharf were all dense sand. The soil parameters used in the study were calibrated in numerical soil element tests (Oedometer and Triaxial tests).
The wharf displacement and pore pressure results obtained using models with different accuracy were compared to the numerical results of Heidary-Torkamani et al. It was found that the Hardening Soil model with small-strain stiffness (HSS model) gives clearly better results than the MC and HS models.
Afterwards, the pile displacements in sloping rockfill were analyzed. The displacement time histories of the rock dike at the top and at the toe were also exposed. It can be noted that during the earthquake there was a significant lateral ground displacement at the upper part of the embankment due to the liquefaction of loose sand. This movement caused displacement at the dike top greater than its displacement at the toe. Consequently, the behavior of the wharf was affected and the pile displacements were important, specially the piles closest to the dike top.
The crystal structures of various types of perovskite halide compounds were summarized and described. Atomic arrangements of these perovskite compounds can be investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the structural models of basic perovskite halides, X-ray and electron diffractions were calculated and discussed to compare with the experimental data. Other halides such as elemental substituted or cation ordered double perovskite compounds were also described. In addition to the ordinary 3-dimensional perovskites, low dimensional perovskites with 2-, 1-, or 0-dimensionalities were summarized. The structural stabilities of the perovskite halides could be investigated computing the tolerance and octahedral factors, which can be useful for the guideline of elemental substitution to improve the structures and properties, and several low toxic halides were proposed. For the device conformation, highly crystalline-orientated grains and dendritic structures can be formed and affected the photo-voltaic properties. The actual crystal structures of perovskite halides in the thin film configuration were studied by Rietveld analysis optimizing the atomic coordinates and occupancies with low residual factors. These results are useful for structure analysis of perovskite halide crystals, which are expected to be next-generation solar cell materials.