During the early years of the 20th century, attempts at dialogue with modern culture and practical collaboration with the Protestant majority in the Kaiserreich emerged in German Catholicism in order to overcome the condition of ‚inferiority‘ that characterized the Catholic population. In the context of the anti-modernist repression enacted by the Roman Curia of Pope Pius X, however, the proponents of forms of interdenominational organization, the autonomy of the laity from the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and openness towards secularized modernity more generally attracted the criticism of the so-called integralist Catholics. The latter saw a danger to the Catholic faith and to the prerogatives of the Roman Church in these developments and, ultimately, a manifestation of modernist ‚heresy‘. Among the targets of the integralist accusations were the Volksverein and the Centre Party, as well as the interdenominational Christian trade unions. The paper aims to shed light on the contents and characteristics of German Catholic integralism in the years following the encyclical Pascendi (1907): to this end, the specific case of the Cologne priest Andreas Müller (1862–1938) is examined; through dozens of letters addressed to the Nuncio of Munich and the Holy See itself, he denounced the (alleged) infiltration of Modernism in Germany.
The disciplinary tradition of musicology has been divided, from the outset, between historical and systematic aspects, prolonging the ancient conflict between the physical and sensorial aspects of music. In an ongoing process of diversification (synonymous with destabilisation in a minor discipline like musicology), history lost the central position claimed for it in the founding era. Yet this tradition is itself inconsistent given the permanent conflict between aspects connected to history and those connected to the fine arts. Ultimately, this article considers the productive impulse that might be provided by a new and fundamental rapprochement between musicology and history. This productivity and potential is discussed using several potential examples.
In 2020, the Institute of Music of the Fondazione Giorgio Cini celebrated its 35th birthday. Its archive preserves 26 collections belonging to Italian composers and musicians of the 20th century: a significant quantity of sources encompassing several generations and aesthetic orientations (from Casella to Romitelli, from Rota to Manzoni etc.). The state of current discourse and new technologies are leading to a re-orientation of archival work. First, it can contribute to a more detailed picture of musical facts and personal interactions. Second, digital technologies create the conditions for new ways of evaluating the data found in different sources; and third, an archive is now increasingly conceived as a service and the use of its resources is not limited to historiographical research but also encompasses the dissemination of knowledge and musical practice. The book series „The Composer’s Workshop”, the online-journal „Archival Notes” and the workshop cycle „Research-led Performance” are examples of the wide range of activities connected with our archive.
The cultural-religious profile of Ashkenazi Judaism is, compared to Sephardic Judaism, mostly portrayed as stereotypically focused on studying the Talmud and discussing the Halacha. While Sephardic Judaism, and before that also Oriental Judaism, produced a rich philosophy and mystical literatures in the form of the Kabbalah, in Ashkenaz one usually tends to see the yeshiva with its merely few spiritual and theological-philosophical interests. In contrast to this common image, it should be pointed out here that in Ashkenazi Judaism there were quite a few outstanding Halacha scholars such as El’asar from Worms, the Maharal from Prague, Moses Isserles and Ḥajjim Woloshyner who created the theological foundation for the fulfillment of the commandments and the study of the Torah, who subsequently became the paradigm for Ashkenazi Orthodoxy.