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Seven Approaches That Would Not Hurt And Make Cities Better

Abstract

Constant exposure to traffic noise pollution can have significant impact on human health and well being. Occupants of high-rise buildings along noisy traffic arteries are severely affected. In an attempt to contribute to noise protection design of prospective high-rise buildings, traffic noise measurements and prediction using the CRTN (calculation of road traffic noise) model, were made along the façade of a high-rise building in central Athens. The aim was to test the accuracy of this model in predicting the vertical distribution (mapping) of traffic noise along such building façades, under the local urban characteristics of the Mediterranean capital. The predicted and measured noise levels were found to be highly coherent with each other, and their vertical distribution pattern, by and large, confirmed findings from earlier studies. Nevertheless, the predicted values had a tendency of underestimation, with a mean difference −2.2 dB(A) with reference to measured values. It is considered that this underestimation is associated mainly with a newly proposed feature of urban morphology, namely (local) geo-morphology. By and large, it can be inferred that the CRTN model is a useful tool, suitable for the prediction of traffic noise along high-rise building façades during their planning and design stage. The results represent a further step towards more general application of this model, as well as a contribution to the use of this model considering a wider number of urban features.

Abstract

In this study, some measurements like the current, voltage and hydrogen flow based on the fuel cell are investigated in spectral-domain as well as their time-domain representations and then, their spectral properties are extracted. Besides this, taking the simplified transfer function approach into account, which is defined between the hydrogen flow and current of the cell as an input-output pair, more detailed results are obtained. Therefore, the spectral parts of the fuel cell are put into categories under the impacts coming from the process, measurement circuits and digitizers. The process noise to be defined at very small frequencies (<15 Hz) can be explained as the effects of the various physical and chemical interactions emerging in the fuel cell. Moreover, this study analysed the spectral characteristics of fuel cells for current, voltage and hydrogen flow in detail.

Abstract

This study compares metrics for environmental noise diagnosis in schools at airport vicinity. The goal is to analyze and identify the most suitable criteria for scaling aircraft noise impact over schools, during landing and take-off operations. A Brazilian case study is conducted, based on the noise mapping and sound level verification. The day-night average noise level (DNL) and the time above limit (TA) are investigated using acoustic simulation and noise mapping and in order to identify the critical receivers. Results of DNL and TA for two schools at airport surroundings show that the criteria adopted by the municipal and airport authorities to describe the airport noise are unsatisfactory and do not reflect the intermittent behavior of this type of noise. It was verified that individual receiver analysis, based on noise interruptions thought TA parameter is more suitable for evaluation of noise impact over schools at airport vicinity.

City Making through Corporeal Practice in Mexico City
Debatten um das unbebaute historische Warschauer Zentrum, 1945–1989
Architecture, Politics, and Mankind