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Series: De Gruyter STEM


This chapter presents mathematical fundamentals which are essential for a deeper understanding of close-range photogrammetry. After defining some common coordinate systems, the most important plane and spatial coordinate transformations are summarized. An introduction to homogeneous coordinates and graphical projections then follows and the chapter concludes with the basic theory of leastsquares adjustment.


Photogrammetric imaging technologies for close-range measurement purposes impact upon all elements in the measurement process, from the preparation of the measuring object prior to imaging, through image acquisition, to subsequent analysis of the image content. Following an introduction to the physics behind optical imaging, issues including distortion, resolution and sampling theory are discussed. Common photogrammetric imaging concepts are briefly presented such as online and offline approaches and imaging configurations. The key part of this chapter deals with the geometric analysis defining the camera as a measuring tool, i.e. photogrammetric camera modelling, parameters of interior orientation and correction of imaging errors. Current components and sensor technologies for 2D image acquisition are then reviewed in the sections which follow. From there, discussion moves to signalization (targeting), light projection and illumination, which are critical in achieving photogrammetric accuracy.