In this article, we deal with similarity between epigenetic marks in the DNA and the so-called hapaxes in language. A grammar description based on hapax legomena is designed. We reflect hapax analysis of Czech language provided by Novotná (2013) and avoid random selection of the corpus. For this reason, we analyze the corpus of 12 authentic books from 12 authors who elaborated the theme “What’s new in…” concerning their field of science, assigned by Nová beseda publishing. By analyzing middle-sized corpus, we expected results similar to those in case of large-scale national corpus (see Novotná 2013). We chose to classify hapaxes into different categories in comparison to Novotná, yet the results show similar language productive categories. This kind of language potentiality seems to be analogical to epigenetic processes in biology, which is briefly introduced.
In January 2018, the President of the Czech Republic was elected. Before that, each of the candidates communicated their intention to run for the office in a different kind of speech. By using selected characteristics we evaluate and compare these candidate speeches. Subsequently, we reflect on the possibilities of correlating the results of the election with data collected during the analysis.
This afterword draws insights and conclusions from the preceding chapters by critically engaging once again with the disciplinary status of multimodality. It explicates the main points of discussion of the contributions and makes some recommendations concerning disciplinarity and multimodality. The path taken addresses multimodality at a fundamental philosophical and practical level, reflecting some of the requirements that establishing a discipline of multimodality would entail. This presents multimodality and its study increasingly in a particular light of its own and, as a consequence, it will be argued that a strengthening of disciplinary claims for multimodality is at this time not only beneficial but, in certain important respects, crucial for advancing beyond the current, somewhat disparate, state(s) of the art.
The European ADLAB project, coordinated by the University of Trieste, sought to promote the practice of audio description (AD), a method designed to provide access to blind and sight-impaired persons, particularly in the field of cinema and television, by creating a set of pan-European ‘strategic’ guidelines for the profession. A new European project (ADLAB PRO) is now in progress, again coordinated in Trieste, aimed firstly at creating the profile of the professional audio describer, but also including an extension of audio description research into museums, art galleries, churches, important landmarks, and so on. This new development weds AD to the early multimodal work of O’Toole, Kress and van Leeuwen, Baldry and Thibault, etc. As regards the descriptions of museum exhibits, the most effective approach to satisfying the needs of the blind and sight-impaired public needs to be found. Empirical analyses of the linguistic components of descriptions for sighted and non-sighted visitors, as they are presented in audioguides for example, need to be compared, in order to explore the variations in textuality required for audio descriptions. Cognitive linguistics, systemic-functional linguistics, discourse analysis, and other sources will be activated in the search for the most user-friendly yet informative format. But over and above these considerations, there is an ever clearer need to go beyond the image/word symbiosis and bring in other senses in the multimodal approach to AD. One of the project’s aims is to study this approach in depth and extend it to various areas of audio description research for museums. This intersensorial approach will then be expanded further to embrace the use of music, sounds, smell, and taste wherever they can enhance the multimodal experience.
This study uses three examples of Edwardian (1901-1914) book inscriptions- a prize inscription, gift inscription, and bookplate-to demonstrate how the adoption of an ethnohistorical approach, in which choices of image, color, typography, and materiality are grounded in archival research, can strengthen multimodal analysis. Furthermore, it argues that, while book inscriptions may seem insignificant markers of ownership, they, in fact, act as a material microcosm of many of the social tensions that existed between class groups in early twentieth-century Britain. The analysis reveals that inscriptions were primarily used to objectify their owners’ economic means and cultural necessities, and assert themselves in a social space, whether to uphold their rank or keep their distance from other groups. These findings demonstrate the importance of embedding hypotheses concerning the function and form of artifacts in concrete historical documents.
What does it mean to navigate a graphic narrative? Is it just an elaborate analogy for reading or does it typify the level of multimodal negotiation elicited by the graphic novel’s orchestration of its image-text domain? This chapter will attempt to address such enquiry and subsequently aim it towards the furtherance of multimodality as a new discipline by utilizing three of the medium’s more complex graphic novels: David Mazzuchelli’s Asterios Polyp, Chris Ware’s Building Stories, and Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell’s From Hell. The concept of navigation-asreading will be promoted by addressing the level of plurivectoral scansion and tactile manipulation that each novel mandates. The aim is to demonstrate how the integration of image and text, and the orchestration of visual layout, facilitates a level of cross-modal realization that grants the reader more than one way to navigate the momentary frailty of human relations in Asterios Polyp, account for the fragmented persistence of memory in Building Stories, or identify the diffracted resonance of a protagonist’s stream of consciousness in From Hell.