Using within-family variation from twins and siblings, I find that smokers earn approximately 16% less than nonsmokers. Possible explanations for this earning difference are addiction-related productivity declines and earning reductions from higher health insurance costs. To investigate further, I use variation in the provision of employer-supplied health insurance (ESHI) to examine the mechanism of whether the addiction or insurance component has a larger influence on earnings. While I generally observe a larger earning penalty for smokers with ESHI than smokers without ESHI, the earning difference is statistically indistinguishable from zero.
The aim of our paper is to identify how entrepreneurs from European Union (EU) countries use information and communications technologies (ICTs) in their business activities. We also propose to identify if there are differences in the use of ICTs by entrepreneurs, according to level of economic development of EU countries. In order to achieve these goals, we analyse a sample of EU countries, by including them into two groups, according to the stage of their economic development. For analysing the data, we use several methods (the logical-constructive method, comparative methods and benchmarking). The benchmarking method helps us to estimate indicators at country level and to compare them between countries. Our results indicate that e-entrepreneurship in developed countries is more advanced compared to developing countries. There are also significant differences regarding the use of informational technologies between types of firms by their size. Small enterprises use in a lower proportion ICTs in their activity compared with large firms. Through the content of our research, we emphasize that in order to adapt to the rapid changing environment and also to the changes in the consumer’s behaviour the enterprises should focus on introducing the ICTs in their activity to face the competition. Also, government policies should pay more attention to supporting development of information technology infrastructure.
There is a well-established literature that finds a strong causal association between remittance flows and economic growth and poverty. Owing to the poverty-alleviating and income-generating effects of remittances, it may theoretically reduce crime by increasing the opportunity cost of committing crime. This paper studies the effects of remittance receipts on crime outcomes in India. The identification strategy, exploits the variation in rainfall as an instrument for remittance receipts. The results suggest that remittance receipts have a negative effect on violent crimes and a positive effect on nonviolent crimes. Since remittance flows mean that more economic resources are available, remittances provide an incentive for certain crimes that thrive in the presence of economic resources. Therefore, an important implication of this result is that as remittance receipts increase income and welfare, there is a diverse effect on the costs and benefits of different types of crimes. It may result in unfavorable outcomes in the form of increases in certain nonviolent crimes.
In this article, we employ a panel household survey from Tajikistan to study labor migrants’ location choices in Russia. We find that labor migrants from Tajikistan consider a wide variety of economic, demographic, and geographical characteristics of Russian regions when making location choices. We also find that experienced migrants are less responsive to current regional characteristics that might suggest path dependence in destination choices by experienced migrants.
Violence against women is relevant both in the world and in Georgia. Therefore, the aim of the work is Statistical analysis of violence against women in Georgia, according to the causes, forms, revealed forms and results of violence. The methods of statistical observation, grouping and analysis were used in the research process. The graphical expression method is widely used. Apart from them, the methods of induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis, and selective observation were also used. Relative indicators of structure, dynamics, and comparison were calculated. Violence against women is a taboo topic for Georgian society and rarely becomes disclosed. Violence against women and girls in Georgia includes sexual abuse, rape, sexual harassment, early marriages, or forced marriage. The cases of violence against women are much more common in residents of Tbilisi, Samtskhe-Javakheti and Mtskheta-Mtianeti. It is relatively low in Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo and Imereti regions. Besides physical violence, there is frequent psychological violence, such as constant control of the wife, threatening, intimidation, etc. Violence indicators are different for age groups and nationalities. The survey is intended for a wide segment. In the future, it is possible to further expand the area by considering sources of financing. The results of this research will help increase public awareness and the need for women’s rights. Since 2009, research about women’s violence in Georgia has not been conducted. Therefore, the statistical data presented here is completely most recent.
We investigate how the potential burden of processing ever more knowledge has affected the careers and research output of researchers in mathematics over the past 64 years. We construct a panel dataset of 48.851 researchers who published in ten top-ranking journals in mathematics. For this population of researchers, we supplement the dataset with years of birth from public sources. Our results show a significant increase of the average age of researchers at their first publication in one of our top-ranking journals, of the number of references of single-author articles, and of the number of coauthors that contribute to an article. Our findings extend earlier empirical findings on patents, as well as on researchers in economics, and hint at a burden of knowledge pervading different areas of human development. Moreover, our results indicate that researchers develop strategies like the division of labor to deal with this burden.
The digitalisation of business processes, cultural backgrounds and consequences on behavioural differences make a direct impact on customer purchase behaviours across different markets. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of the economic situation in the selected countries regarding the e-commerce business. On the sample of the situation in the Czech Republic, the article presents the increasing potential of e-commerce and focuses not only on the statistics review but on the psychological aspects of online behaviour. Firstly, the paper presents a theoretical model for customer purchase behaviour and the development of the theory in correspondence with B2C e-commerce background. Secondly, this research analyses the main aspects of shopping behaviour in selected countries; the research shows the main characteristics of shopping and provides a better understanding of the impact of digitalisation. Finally, the paper confirmed the fact that the Czech e-commerce market is developed and has potential to grow nationally and internationally. The paper investigates online shopping for the period between 2010 – 2017. Finally, the authors discuss all the theoretical and practical implications of these results.
This paper proposes the Octograph, a cube-like model of leadership and organizational performance. Eight concepts, placed on eight corners of the cube, create eight triangular models and four processes of Decision-making, Communication, Production and Innovation. The eight concepts are nested together through one-arrowed dependency lines. Saying «Leadership» depends more on «employees» than vice versa, presupposes causal explanations of the how and why of the dependency.
The principal explanations in the existing economics literature for the formation of concentrated markets are intellectual property-related entry barriers, economies of scale, and network effects. In each of these explanations, a few firms have an inherent advantage, allowing them to maintain their dominance. Our study’s objective is to show that even when all firms are equally situated, an industry can evolve from a competitive to an oligopolistic structure purely as a result of random chance. We create a stylized model where firms are identical at inception, with none having any competitive advantage. In each period, a firm’s profit is random with zero mean. The randomness of profits is hypothesized to stem from demand uncertainty and production cost fluctuations. Simulation results show that, solely as a result of chance, a competitive industry transitions to a market structure where only a handful dominate. The antitrust implications of our paper pertain to the causes of oligopoly formation. Notwithstanding that in some cases oligopolies can arise as a result of anticompetitive behavior of firms, we show that market concentration can also occur as a benign, natural consequence of evolution of an industry characterized by firms with uncertain profits.
During the last two decades, Poland has become a large recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI). This article uses standard panel data techniques to study empirically the determinants of inward FDI in Poland during the period 1996–2015 made by multinational enterprises coming from the old European Union (EU)-15 member states. The estimated specification is derived from the knowledge-capital (KC) model and includes two types of capital: human and physical. The assembled empirical evidence points to the horizontal motive as the primary reason for undertaking FDI in Poland by multinational firms based in the old EU-15 member states. Moreover, the KC model does not seem to explain better the pattern of inward FDI in Poland compared to the standard ad hoc gravity model of international capital mobility.